Antibiotics

ANTIMICROBIAL SPECTRUM OF ACTIVITY

  1. Cho JC, Fiorenza MA, Estrada SJ.  Ceftolozane/tazobactam:  a novel cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination.  Pharmacotherapy 2015;35:701-15.
  2. Craig WA, Andes DR.  In vivo activities of ceftolozane, a new cepahalosporin, with and without tazobactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae, including strains with extended-spectrum β-lactamases, in the thighs of neutropenic mice.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013;57:1577-82.
  3. Farrell DJ, Flamm RK, Sader HS, et al.  Antimicrobial activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam tested against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with various resistance patterns isolated in U.S. hospitals (2011-2012).  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013;57:6305-10.
  4. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, eds.  The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2018. Sperryville, VA:  Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc. 2018.
  5. Grayson ML, Crowe SM, McCarthy JS, et al, eds.  Kucers’ the use of antibiotics 6th edition:  A Clinical Review of Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Drugs.  2010 CRC Press, Boca Raton FL.
  6. Scott LJ.  Ceftolozane/tazobactam:  a review in complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections.  Drugs 2016;76:231-42.
  7. Solomkin J, Hershberger E, Miller B, et al.  Ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole for complicated intra-abdominal infections in an era of multidrug resistance:  results from a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ASPECT-cIAI).  Clin Infect Dis 2015;60:1462-71.
  8. Sucher AJ, Chahine EB, Cogan P, et al.  Ceftolozane/tazobactam:  a new cephalosporin and β-lactamase inhibitor combination.  Ann Pharmacother 2015;49:1046-56.
  9. Versalovic J, Carroll KC, Funke G, et al.  Manual of clinical microbiology, 10th edition, 2011.  Washington, DC:  ASM Press 2011.
  10. Wagenlehner FM, Umeh O, Steenbergen J, et al.  Ceftolozane/ tazobactam compared with levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary-tract infections, including pyelonephritis:  a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ASPECT-cUTI).  Lancet 2015;385:1949-56.
  11. Zhanel GG, Chung P, Adam H, et al.  Ceftolozane/tazobactam:  a novel cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli.  Drugs 2014;74:31-51.

 

PHARMACODYNAMICS OF ANTIMICROBIALS

  1. Ambrose PG, Bhavnani SM, Rubino CM, et al.  Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of antimicrobial therapy:  it’s not just for mice anymore.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:79-86.
  2. Andes D.  In vivo pharmacodynamics of antifungal drugs in treatment of candidiasis.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47:1179-86.
  3. Andes D, vanOgtrop ML, Peng J, et al.  In vivo pharmacodynamics of a new oxazolidinone (linezolid).  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:3484-9.
  4. Craig WA.  Does the dose matter?  Clin Infect Dis 2001;33(suppl 3):S233-7.
  5. Craig WA.  Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters:  rationale for antibacterial dosing of mice and men.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:1-12.
  6. Crandon JL, Nicolau DP.  Pharmacodynamic approaches to optimizing beta-lactam therapy.  Crit Care Clin 2011;27:77-93.
  7. Falagas ME, Vouloumanou EK, Samonis G, et al.  Fosfomycin.  Clin Microbiol Rev 2016;29:321-47  doi:10.1128/CMR.00068-15.
  8. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, eds.  The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2012. Sperryville, VA:  Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc. 2012.
  9. Michalopoulos AS, Falagas ME.  Colistin:  recent data on pharmacodynamics properties and clinical efficacy in critically ill patients.  Ann Intensive Care 2011;1:30-5.
  10. Reffert JL, Smith WJ.  Fosfomycin for the treatment of resistant gram-negative bacterial infections.  Pharmacotherapy 2014;34:845-57  doi:10.1002/phar.1434.
  11. Roberts JA, Lipman F.  Pharmacokinetic issues for antibiotics in the critically ill patient.  Crit Care Med 2009;37:840-51.
  12. Wilby KJ, Nasr ZG, Elazzazy S, et al.  A review of clinical outcomes associated with two meropenem dosing strategies.  Drugs R D 2017;17:73-8.
  13. Wispelway B.  Clinical implications of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones.  Clin Infect Dis 2005;40(suppl 7):S439-47.

 

EXTENDED INTERVAL AMINOGLYCOSIDE DOSING/MONITORING GUIDELINES

  1. Ali MZ, Goetz MB.  A meta-analysis of the relative efficacy and toxicity of single daily dosing versus multiple daily dosing of aminoglycosides.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:796-809.
  2. Ariano RE.  A critical evaluation of “once daily” aminoglycoside therapy.  Health Sciences Centre Drug Info Bulletin 1993;15(6).
  3. Bailey TC, Little JR, Littenberg B, et al.  A meta-analysis of extended-interval dosing versus multiple daily dosing of aminoglycosides.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:786-95.
  4. Bates RD, Nahata MC.  Once-daily administration of aminoglycosides.  Ann Pharmacother 1994;28:757-66.
  5. Bertino JS, Rotschafer JC.  Editorial response: single daily dosing of aminoglycosides-a concept whose time has not yet come.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:820-23.
  6. Blaser J, Konig C, Simmen HP, et al.  Monitoring serum concentrations for once-daily netilmicin dosing regimens.  J Antimicrob Chemother 1994;33:341-8.
  7. Conly JM, Gold W, Shafran SD.  Once-daily aminoglycoside dosing: a new look at an old drug.  Can J Infect Dis 1994;5:205-6.
  8. Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Giotis ND, Baliatsa DV, et al.  Extended-interval aminoglycoside administration for children:  a meta-analysis.  Pediatrics 2004;114:e111-8.
  9. Craig WA.  Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides.  Can J Infect Dis 1994;5:28C-33C.
  10. Gilbert DN.  Editorial response: meta-analyses are no longer required for determining the efficacy of single daily dosing of aminoglycosides.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:816-19.
  11. Gilbert DN.  Minireview: once-daily aminoglycoside therapy.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991;35:399-405.
  12. Hatala R, Dinh T, Cook DJ.  Once-daily aminoglycoside dosing in immunocompetent adults: a meta-analysis.  Ann Intern Med 1996;124:717-25.
  13. Hatala R, Dinh TT, Cook DJ.  Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides in immunocompromised adults: a systematic review.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:810-15.
  14. Hemsworth S, Nunn AJ, Selwood K, et al.  Once-daily netilmicin for neutropenic pyrexia in paediatric oncology.  Acta Paediatr 2005;94:268-74.
  15. Hitt CM, Klepser ME, Nightingale CH, et al.  Pharmacoeconomic impact of once-daily aminoglycoside administration.  Pharmacotherapy 1997;17:810-14.
  16. Kirkpatrick CMJ, Duffull SB, Begg EJ.  Once-daily aminoglycoside therapy: potential ototoxicity.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997;41:879-80.
  17. Knoderer CA, Everett JA, Buss WF.  Clinical issues surrounding once-daily aminoglycoside dosing in children.  Pharmacother 2003;23:44-56.
  18. Levison ME.  New dosing regimens for aminoglycoside antibiotics.  Ann Intern Med 1992;117:693-4.
  19. Marra F, Partovi N, Jewesson P.  Aminoglycoside administration as a single daily dose: an improvement to current practice or a repeat of previous errors?  Drugs 1996;52:344-70.
  20. Nicolau DP, Freeman CD, Belliveau PP, et al.  Experience with a once-daily aminoglycoside program administered to 2,184 adult patients.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995;39:650-5.
  21. Prins JM, Buller HR, Kuijper EJ, et al.  Once versus thrice daily gentamicin in patients with serious infections.  Lancet 1993;341:335-9.
  22. Smyth A, Tan KHV, Hyman-Taylor P, et al.  Once versus three-times daily regimens of tobramycin treatment for pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis - the TOPIC study:  a randomised controlled trial.  Lancet 2005;365:573-8.VandenBussche HL, Klepser MR.  Editorial.  Lancet 2005;365:547-8.
  23. Sung L, Dupuis LL, Bliss B, et al.  Randomized controlled trial of once- versus thrice-daily tobramycin in febrile neutropenic children undergoing stem cell transplantation.  J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1869-77.
  24. Tomlinson RJ, Ronghe M, Goodbourne C, et al.  Once daily ceftriaxone and gentamicin for the treatment of febrile neutropenia.  Arch Dis Child 1999;80:125-31.
  25. Zaske DE.  Aminoglycosides.  In: Evans WE, Schentag JJ, Jusko WJ, eds.  Applied pharmacokinetics: principles of therapeutic drug monitoring.  Vancouver, WA: Therapeutics; 1992;14:1-47.

 

VANCOMYCIN DOSING/MONITORING GUIDELINES

  1. Ariano RE, Fine A, Sitar DS, et al.  Adequacy of a vancomycin dosing regimen in patients receiving high-flux hemodialysis.  Am J Kid Dis 2005;46:681-7.
  2. Bauer LA.  Applied Clinical Pharmacokinets.  Chapter 5:  Vancomycin.  McGraw-Hill, 2001.
  3. Bellos I, Daskalakis G, Pergialiotis V.  Relationship of vancomycin trough levels with acute kidney injury risk: an exposure–toxicity meta-analysis.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2020; doi:10.1093/jac/dkaa184.
  4. Brown M, Polisetty R, Gracely EJ, et al.  Weight based loading of vancomycin in patients on hemodialysis.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;53:164-6.
  5. Dalton BR, Rajakumar I, Langevin A, et al.  Vancomycin area under the curve to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio predicting clinical outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis with pooled sensitivity and specificity.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2020;26:436-46.
  6. Dilworth TJ, Schulz LT, Rose WE.  Vancomycin advanced therapeutic drug monitoring: an exercise in futility or virtuous endeavor to improve drug efficacy and safety?  Clin Infect Dis 2020;ciaa1354, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1354.
  7. Edwards D, Pancorbo S.  Routine monitoring of serum vancomycin concentrations: waiting for proof of its value.  Clin Pharm 1987;6:652-4.
  8. Fekety R.  Vancomycin and teicoplanin.  In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds.  Principles and practice of infectious diseases. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1995;346-53.
  9. Freeman C, et al.  Vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring: is it necessary? Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:594-8.
  10. Frymoyer A, Guglielmo BJ, Wilson SD, et al.  Impact of a hospitalwide increase in empiric pediatric vancomycin dosing on initial trough concentrations.  Pharmacotherapy 2011;31:871-6.
  11. Frymoyer A, Hersh AL, Benet LZ, et al.  Current recommended dosing of vancomycin for children with invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections is inadequate. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009;28:398-402.
  12. Johnson SV, et al.  Inappropriate vancomycin prescribing based on criteria from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Pharmacotherapy 1995;15:579-85.
  13. Pai AB, Pai MP.  Vancomycin dosing in high flux hemodialysis:  a limited sampling algorithm.  Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004;61:1812-6.
  14. Panais R, Hirsch DJ, Dipchand C, et al.  A protocolized approach to vancomycin dosing in conventional hemodialysis.  J Nephrol 2010;23:569-74.Rodvold KA, et al.  Routine monitoring of serum vancomycin concentrations:  can waiting be justified?  Clin Pharm 1987;6:655-8.
  15. Rybak MJ, Le J, Lodise TP, et al.  Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin for serious
    methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: A revised consensus guideline and review by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases
    Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists.  Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2020;77:835–63.
  16. Rybak M, Lomaestro B, Rotschafer JC, et al.  Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin in adult patients:  A consensus review of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP).  Am J Health Syst Pharm 2009;66:82-98.
  17. Saunders NJ.  Vancomycin administration and monitoring reappraisal. J Antimicrob Chemother 1995;36:279-82.
  18. Saunders NJ.  Why monitor peak vancomycin concentrations? Lancet 1994;344:1748-50.
  19. Shalansky S. Rationalization of vancomycin serum concentration monitoring. Can J Hosp Pharm 1995;48:17-24.
  20. Van Hal SJ, Paterson DL, Lodise TP. Systematic review and meta-analysis of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity associated with dosing schedules that maintain troughs between 15 and 20 milligrams per liter. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013;57:734–44.
  21. Vandecasteele SJ, DeBacquer D, DeVriese AS.  Implementation of a dose calculator for vancomycin to achieve target trough levels of 15-20 µg/mL in persons undergoing hemodialysis.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;53:124-9.
  22. Wright WF, Jorgensen SCJ, Spellberg B.  Heaping the pelion of vancomycin on the ossa of MRSA: back to basics in clinical care and guidelines.  Clin Infect Dis 2020;ciaa1360, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1360.
  23. Zelenitsky SA, Ariano RE, McCrae ML, et al.  An initial vancomycin dosing protocol to achieve therapeutic serum concentrations in hemodialysis patients.  Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:527-33.
  24. Zimmermann AE, et al.  Association of vancomycin serum concentrations with outcomes in patients with gram-positive bacteremia. Pharmacotherapy 1995;15:85-91.

 

ADULT DOSING RECOMMENDATIONS IN RENAL IMPAIRMENT      

  1. Bains A, Buna D, Hoag NA.  A retrospective review assessing the efficacy and safety of nitrofurantoin in renal impairment.  Can Pharm J 2009;142:248-52.
  2. Bartlett JG.  2002 Pocket book of infectious disease therapy.  12th ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.
  3. Bennett WM, et al. Drug prescribing in renal failure: Dosing guidelines for adults. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians; 1999.
  4. Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) of the Canadian Lung Association (CLA) and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC).  Canadian Tuberculosis Standards, 7th Edition, 2013. http://www.respiratoryguidelines.ca/tb-standards-2013
  5. Geerts AF, Eppenga WL, Heerdink R, et al. Ineffectiveness and adverse events of nitrofurantoin in women with urinary tract infection and renal impairment in primary care. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2013;69:1701-7.
  6. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, eds.  The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2017. Sperryville, VA:  Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc. 2017.
  7. Hoang P, Salbu RL.  Updated nitrofurantoin recommendations in the elderly:  a closer look at the evidence.  Consult Pharm 2016;31:381-4.   
  8. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, and Dolin R, eds.  Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles & practice of infectious diseases. 7th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone Inc. 2009.
  9. Oplinger M, Andrews CO.  Nitrofurantoin contraindication in patients with a creatinine clearance below 60 mL/min:  looking for the evidence.  Ann Pharmacother 2013;47:106-11.
  10. Product monographs.  Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties 2005.
  11. Singh N, Gandhi S, McArthur E, et al.  Kidney function and the use of nitrofurantoin to treat urinary tract infections in older women.  CMAJ 2015;187:648-56.

 

ADULT DOSING RECOMMENDATIONS IN HEPATIC IMPAIRMENT

  1. Brown N, Ho DHW, Fong KL, et al. Effects of hepatic function on vancomycin clinical pharmacology. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1983;23:603-9.
  2. Drug Evaluation monographs, Micromedex online 1999.
  3. Efthymiopoulos C, Bramer SL, Maroli A, et al. Grepafloxacin pharmacokinetics in individuals with hepatic dysfunction. Clin Pharmacokinet 1997;33:25-31.
  4. Evans WE, Schentag JJ, Jusko WJ, eds.  Applied pharmacokinetics. Principles of therapeutic drug monitoring. Vancouver, WA:  Applied Therapeutics Inc.; 3rd ed. 1992.
  5. Hall KW, Nightingale CH, Gibaldi M, et al.  Pharmacokinetics of erythromycin in normal and alcoholic liver disease subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 1982;22:321-5.
  6. Hinthorn DR, Baker LH, Romig DA, et al.  Use of clindamycin in patients with liver disease. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1976;9:498-501.
  7. Tschida SJ, Vance-Bryan K, Zaske DE. Anti-infective agents and hepatic disease. Med Clin North Am 1995;79:895-917.
  8. Kenyon J (ed). Tailor antibacterial dosages in hepatic impairment. Drugs Ther Perspect 1993;I:12-13.
  9. Kubisty CA, Arns PA, Wedlund PJ, et al. Pharmacotherapy in liver failure. In:  Chernow B.  Pocket Book of Critical Care Pharmacotherapy.  Baltimore; Williams & Wilkins; 1995.
  10. Lietman PS. Liver disease, aminoglycoside antibiotics and renal dysfunction (editorial). Hepatology 1988;8:966-8.
  11. Matzke GR, Kovarik JM. Clinical pharmacokinetics of anti-infectives. In:  Koda-Kimble MA, Young LY, eds.  Applied therapeutics: the clinical use of drugs.  5th ed. Vancouver, WA:  Applied Therapeutics Inc. 1992;34:34-8.
  12. McCormick PA, Greenslade L, Kibbler CC, et al. Further evidence against the use of aminoglycosides in cirrhotic patients (letter). Gastroenterology 1998;114:612-3.
  13. Meyer JM, Rodvold KA. Clinical pharmacology of antimicrobial agents in cirrhosis. Infect Med 1997;14:541-7.
  14. Moore, RD, Smith CR, Lipsky JJ, et al. Risk factors for nephrotoxicity in patients treated with aminoglycosides. Ann Int Med 1984;100:352-7.
  15. Product monographs.  Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties.  40th ed. Toronto: Webcom Limited; 2005.
  16. Westphal JF, Brogard JM. Clinical pharmacokinetics of newer antibacterial agents in liver disease. Clin Pharmacokinet 1993;24:46-58.
  17. Westphal JF, Jehl F, Vetter D. Pharmacological, toxicologic, and microbiological considerations in the choice of initial antibiotic therapy for serious infections in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:324-35.
  18. Williams RL, Mamelok RD. Hepatic disease and drug pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet 1980;5:528-47.

 

CSF PENETRATION OF ANTIMICROBIALS

  1. Alffenaar JWC, vanAltena R, Bokkerink HJ, et al.  Pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in patients with tuberculous meningitis.  Clin Infect Dis 2009;49:1080-2.
  2. Barling RWA, Selkon JB.  The penetration of antibiotics into cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue.  J Antimicrob Chemother 1978;4:203-27.
  3. Bellmann R. Clinical pharmacokinetics of systemically administered antimycotics. Curr Clin Pharmacol 2007;2:37-58.
  4. Blumer JL, Reed MD, Knupp C.  Review of the pharmacokinetics of cefepime in children.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001;20:337–42.
  5. Boak LM, Li J, Spelman D, et al.  Successful treatment and cerebrospinal fluid penetration of oral linezolid in a patient with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus ventriculitis.  Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:1451-5.
  6. Calcagno A, Baietto L, De Rosa FG, et al. Posaconazole cerebrospinal concentrations in an HIV-infected patient with brain mucormycosis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011;66:224-5.
  7. Cascio A, Conti A, Sinardi L, et al.  Post-neurosurgical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis successfully treated with intrathecal colistin. A new case and a systematic review of the literature.  Int J Infect Dis 2010;14:e572-9.
  8. Chavez-Bueno S, McCracken GH. Bacterial meningitis in children. Pediatr Clin N Am 2005;52:795-810.
  9. Chen JL, Orsini J, Killu C. Poor central nervous system penetration of tigecycline in a patient with sepsis and ventriculitis caused by multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Pharm Technol 2007;23:344-8.
  10. Cottagnoud P, Stucki A, Accosta F, et al.  Ceftaroline is superior to cefepime against a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain in an experimental rabbit meningitis model.  Clin Microbiol Inf 2010;16:S456.
  11. Cottagnoud P, Tauber MG. Fluoroquinolones in the treatment of meningitis. Current Infectious Disease Reports 2003;5:329-36.
  12. Cunha BA, ed.  Antibiotic essentials.  Royal Oak, Michigan:  Physicians' Press.  2002.
  13. Destache CJ, Pakiz CB, Larsen C, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration and pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in an experimental rabbit meningitis model. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;47:611-15.
  14. Ellis JM, Rivera L, Reyes G, et al. Cefepime cerebrospinal fluid concentrations in neonatal bacterial meningitis [2]. Ann Pharmacother 2007;41:900-1.
  15. Flaherty JF.  Central nervous system infections. In: Young LY, Koda-Kimble M, eds. Applied Therapeutics. Vancouver, WA:  Applied Therapeutics Inc. 1995;56:1-23.
  16. Florea NR, Kuti JL, Quintiliani R.  Voriconazole:  a novel azole antifungal.  Formulary 2002:37:389-99.
  17. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, eds.  The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2012. Sperryville, VA:  Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc. 2012.
  18. Gorbach SL, Mensa J, Gatell JM.  1999 pocket book of antimicrobial therapy & prevention. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams & Wilkins 1999.
  19. Groll AH, Gea-Banacloche JC, Glasmacher A, et al. Clinical pharmacology of antifungal compounds. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2003;17:159-91.
  20. Guardado AR, Blanco A, Asensi V, et al.  Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter meningitis in neurosurgical patients with intraventricular catheters:  assessment of different treatments.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;61:908-13.
  21. Hart D, Weinstein MP. Cross-over assessment of serum bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin versus penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy volunteers. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2007;58:375-8.
  22. Hope WW, Mickiene D, Petraitis V, et al. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of micafungin in experimental hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis: implications for echinocandin therapy in neonates. J Infect Dis 2008;197:163-71.
  23. Johnson LB, Kauffman CA.  Voriconazole:  a new triazole antifungal agent.  Clin Infect Dis 2003:36:630-7.
  24. Kanellakopoulou K, Pagoulatou A, Stroumpoulis K, et al. Pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in non-inflamed cerebrospinal fluid of humans: implication for a bactericidal effect. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;61:1328-31.
  25. Kethireddy S, Andes D. CNS pharmacokinetics of antifungal agents. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2007;3:573-81.
  26. Kullar R, Chin JN, Edwards DJ, Parker D, Coplin WM, Rybak MJ. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose daptomycin in patients with suspected or confirmed neurological infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011;55:3505-9.
  27. Lat A, Thompson III GR, Rinaldi MG, et al. Micafungin concentrations from brain tissue and pancreatic pseudocyst fluid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010;54: 943-4.
  28. Le J, Bookstaver PB, Rudisill CN, et al. Treatment of meningitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: high-dose and combination daptomycin therapy. Ann Pharmacother 2010;44:2001-6.
  29. Lengerke C, Haap M, Mayer F, et al. Low tigecycline concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of a neutropenic patient with inflamed meninges. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011;55:449-50.
  30. Lodise TP, Rhoney DH, Tam VH, et al. Pharmacodynamic profiling of cefepime in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of hospitalized patients with external ventriculostomies. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2006;54:223-30.
  31. Lorian V.  Antibiotics in laboratory medicine.  4th ed. Williams and Wilkins 1996.
  32. Lutsar I, McCracken GH, Friedland IR.  Antibiotic pharmacodynamics in cerebrospinal fluid.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:1117-29.
  33. Lutsar I, Roffey S, Troke P.  Voriconazole concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue of guinea pigs and immunocompromised patients.  Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:728-32.
  34. Madaras-Kelly KJ, Ostergaard BE, Rotschafer JC.  Central nervous system infections.  In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al, eds.  Pharmacotherapy: a pathophysiologic approach. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange 1997:1971-94.
  35. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, and Dolin R, eds.  Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles & practice of infectious diseases. 7th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone Inc. 2009.
  36. Margetis K, Dimaraki E, Charkoftaki G, et al. Penetration of intact blood-brain barrier by doripenem. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011;55:3637-8.
  37. Markantonis SL, Markou N, Fousteri M, et al.  Penetration of colistin into cerebrospinal fluid.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009;53:4907-10.
  38. Michalopoulos AS, Falagas ME.  Colistin:  recent data on pharmacodynamics properties and clinical efficacy in critically ill patients.  Ann Intensive Care 2011;1:30-5.
  39. Nau R, Prange HW, Muth P, et al.  Passage of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone into cerebrospinal fluid of patients with uninflamed meninges.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1993;37:1518-24.
  40. Nau R, Sorgel F, Eiffert H. Penetration of drugs through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid/blood-brain barrier for treatment of central nervous system infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010;23:858-83.
  41. Nau R, Sorgel F, Prange HW. Pharmacokinetic optimization of the treatment of bacterial central nervous system infections. Clin Pharmacokinet 1998;35:223-45.
  42. Norrby R.  A review of the penetration of antibiotics into CSF and its clinical significance.  Scand J Infect Dis 1978;14:296-309.
  43. Ntziora F, Falagas ME. Linezolid for the treatment of patients with central nervous system infection. Ann Pharmacother 2007;41:296-308.
  44. Okugawa S, Ota Y, Tatsuno K, et al. A case of invasive central nervous system aspergillosis treated with micafungin with monitoring of micafungin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid. Scand J Infect Dis 2007;39:344-6.
  45. Pitisuttithum P, Negroni R, Graybill JR, et al.  Activity of posaconazole in the treatment of central nervous system fungal infections.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2005;56:745-55.
  46. Proia LA, Tenorio AR.  Successful use of voriconazole for treatment of Coccidioides meningitis.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48:2341.
  47. Ray L, Levasseur K, Nicolau DP, et al. Cerebral spinal fluid penetration of tigecycline in a patient with Acinetobacter baumannii cerebritis. Ann Pharmacother 2010; 44:582-6.
  48. Reinwald M, Uharek L, Lampe D, et al. Limited penetration of posaconazole into cerebrospinal fluid in an allogeneic stem cell recipient with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 2009;44:269-70.
  49. Rhoney DH, Tam VH, Parker J, et al. Disposition of cefepime in the central nervous system of patients with external ventricular drains. Pharmacotherapy 2003;23: 310-4.
  50. Riser MS, Bland CM, Rudisill CN, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration of high-dose daptomycin in suspected Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. Ann Pharmacother 2010;44:1832-5.
  51. Rodvold KA, Gotfried MH, Cwik M, et al. Serum, tissue and body fluid concentrations of tigecycline after a single 100 mg dose.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;58: 1221-9.
  52. Ruping MJGT, Albermann N, Ebinger F, et al. Posaconazole concentrations in the central nervous system. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;62:1468-70.
  53. Schwartz S, Milatovic D, Thiel E.  Successful treatment of cerebral aspergillosis with a novel triazole (voriconazole) in a patient with acute leukaemia.  Br J Haematol 1991;97:663-5.
  54. Sejvar JJ, Tenover SC, Stephens DS. Management of anthrax meningitis. Lancet Infect Dis 2005;5:287-95.
  55. Sinner SW, Tunkell AR. Antimicrobial agents in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. Infect Dis Clin N Am 2004;18:581-602.
  56. Stucki A, Cottagnoud M, Acosta F, et al.  Evaluation of ceftobiprole activity against a variety of gram-negative pathogens, including escherichia coli, haemophilus influenzae (ß-lactamase positive and ß-lactamase negative), and klebsiella pneumoniae, in a rabbit meningitis model.  American Society for Microbiology 2011:921-5 doi:10.1128/AAC.01537-10.
  57. Taketomo CK, Hodding JH, Kraus DM.  Pediatric Dosage Handbook. 11th ed.  Hudson, Ohio, USA:  Lexi- Comp Inc; 2004.
  58. Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, et al.  Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis.  Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:1267-84.
  59. van de Beek D, Drake JM, Tunkel AR.  Nosocomial bacterial meningitis.  N Engl J Med 2010;362:146-54.
  60. Verweij PE, Den Bergh MF, Rath PM, et al.  Invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus ustus:  case report and review.  J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:1606-9.
  61. Villani P, Regazzi MB, Marubbi F, et al.  Cerebrospinal fluid linezolid concentrations in postneurosurgical central nervous system infections.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:936-7.
  62. Wallace MR, Sander AW, Licitra C, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus meningitis successfully treated with daptomycin. Infect Dis Clin Pract 2009; 17:69-70.
  63. Wang J, Wang Q, Zhao L, et al. Blood-brain barrier penetration of cefepime after neurosurgery. Chin Med J 2007;120:1176-8.
  64. Zeana C, Kubin CJ, Della-Latta P, et al.  Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium meningitis successfully managed with linezolid:  case report and review of the literature.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:477-82.

 

β-LACTAM ALLERGY

  1. Anon.  Is it really a penicillin allergy?  CDC
  2. Anon.  Management of penicillin and beta-lactam allergy – executive summary.  NB Prov Health Authorities Anti-Infective Stewardship Committee 2016;Feb.
  3. Anon.  Penicillin allergy.  Med Lett Drugs Ther 1988;30:79-80.
  4. Atanaskovic-Markovic M, Gaeta F, Medjo B, et al.  Tolerability of meropenem in children with lgE-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins.  Allergy 2008;63:237-40.
  5. Belga S, Fryters S, Saxinger L.  β-lactam allergy.  Alberta Health Services Antimicrobial Stewardship Backgrounder.  2017;July. http://www.albertahealthservices.ca/assets/info/hp/as/if-hp-asb-2017-07-issue-14.pdf
  6. Anon.  Penicillin allergy.  Med Lett Drugs Ther 1988;30:79-80.
  7. Atanaskovic-Markovic M, Gaeta F, Medjo B, et al.  Tolerability of meropenem in children with lgE-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins.  Allergy 2008;63:237-40.
  8. Blanca M, Romano A, Torres MJ, et al.  Update on the evaluation of hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams.  Allergy 2009;64:183-93.
  9. Campagna JD, Bond MC, Schabelman E, et al.  The use of cephalosporins in penicillin-allergic patients:  a literature review.  J Emerg Med 2012;42:612-20.
  10. DePestel DD, Benninger MS, Danzinger L, et al.  Cephalosporin use in treatment of patients with penicillin allergies.  J Am Pharm Assoc 2008;48:530-40.
  11. Frumin J, Gallagher JC.  Allergic cross-sensitivity between penicillin, carbapenem, and monobactam antibiotics:  what are the chances?  Ann Pharmacother 2009; 43:304-15.
  12. Gallelli JF, Calis KA.  Penicillin allergy and cephalosporin cross-reactivity.  Hosp Pharm 1992;27:540-1.
  13. Gray LJ.  Penicillin allergy and beta lactam cross allergenicity.  Health Sciences Centre Drug Info Newslett 1995;17:1-3.
  14. Gruchalla RS, Pirmohamed M.  Antibiotic allergy.  N Engl J Med 2006;354:601-9.
  15. Guill MF.  Allergic drug reactions: identification and management.  Hosp Formul 1991;26:582-9.
  16. Hippern LD, Halapy H.  Assessing penicillin allergies with a structured assessment form.  Can J Hosp Pharm 2000;53:184-92.
  17. Holowachuk M.  Drug allergy.  On Continuing Pract 1990;17:41-3.
  18. Hunter DE, Hunter WJ.  Penicillin allergies.  Am J Hosp Pharm 1994;51:1963-4.
  19. Kelkar PS, Li JTC.  Cephalosporin allergy.  N Engl J Med 2001;345:804-9.
  20. Kim S, Warrington RJ.  Clinical cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins.  Can J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;3:12-15.
  21. Knowles S.  Drug allergies:  a review.  Pharm Pract CE. April 2005.
  22. Kula B, Djordjevic G, Robinson JL.  A systematic review:  can one prescribe carbapenems to patients with IgE-mediated allergy to penicillins or cephalosporins?  Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:1113-22.
  23. Lagace-Wiens P, Rubinstein E.  Adverse reactions to β-lactam antimicrobials.  Expert Opin Drug Saf 2012;11;381-99.
  24. Langley JM, Halperin S.  Allergy to antibiotics in children:  perception versus reality.  Can J Infect Dis 2002;13:160-3.
  25. Lee CE, Zembower TR, Fotis MA, et al.  The incidence of antimicrobial allergies in hospitalized patients.  Arch Intern Med 2000;160:2819-22.
  26. Legendre DP, Muzny CA, Marshall GD, et al.  Antibiotic hypersensitivity reactions and approaches to desensitization.  Clin Infect Dis 2014;58:1140-8.
  27. Lin RY.  A perspective on penicillin allergy.  Arch Intern Med 1992;152:930-7.
  28. Logan HA, Bayliff CD.  Analysis of therapeutic options in patients reporting a penicillin or cephalosporin allergy.  Can J Hosp Pharm 1997;50:201-7.
  29. MacFadden DR, LaDelfa A, Leen J, et al.  Impact of reported beta-lactam allergy on inpatient outcomes:  a multicenter prospective cohort study.  Clin Infect Dis 2016;63:904-10.
  30. Macy E, Contreras R.  Adverse reactions associated with oral and parenteral use of cephalosporins:  a retrospective population-based analysis.  J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015;135:745-52.
  31. Macy E, Contreras R.  Health care use and serious infection prevalence associated with penicillin “allergy” in hospitalized patients:  a cohort study.  J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014;133:790-6.
  32. McConnell SA, Penzak SR, Warmack TS, et al.  Incidence of imipenem hypersensitivity reactions in febrile neutropenic bone marrow transplant patients with a history of penicillin allergy.  Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:1512-4.
  33. Pichicheno ME.  A review of evidence supporting the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for prescribing cephalosporin antibiotics for penicillin-allergic patients.  Pediatrics 2005;115:1048-57.
  34. Prescott WA, DePestel DD, Ellis JJ, et al.  Incidence of carbapenem-associated allergic-type reactions among patients with versus patients without a reported penicillin allergy.  Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1102-7.
  35. Prescott WA, Kusmierski KA.  Clinical importance of carbapenem hypersensitivity in patients with self-reported and documented penicillin allergy.  Pharmacother 2007;27:137-42.
  36. Preston SL, Briceland LL, Lesar TS.  Accuracy of penicillin allergy reporting.  Am J Hosp Pharm 1994;51:79-84.
  37. Romano A, Viola M, Guēant-Rodriguez RM, et al.  Brief communication:  tolerability of meropenem in patients with lgE-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins.  Ann Intern Med 2007;146:266-9.
  38. Romano A, Viola M, Guēant-Rodriguez RM, et al.  Imipenem in patients with immediate hypersensitivity to penicillins [letter].  N Engl J Med 2006;354:2835-7.
  39. Salkind AR, Cuddy PG, Foxworth JW.  Is this patient allergic to penicillin?  An evidence-based analysis of the likelihood of pencillin allergy.  JAMA 2001;285:2498-505.
  40. Saxon A, Adelman DC, Patel A, et al.  Imipenem cross-reactivity with penicillin in humans.  J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;82:213-7.
  41. Saxon A, Beall GN, Rohr AS, et al.  Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics.  Ann Intern Med 1987;107:204-15.
  42. Sodhi M, Axtell SS, Callahan J, et al.  Is it safe to use carbapenems in patients with a history of allergy to penicillin?  J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;54:1155-7.
  43. Solensky R, Khan DA, eds.  Drug allergy:  an updated practice parameter.  Ann Allergy Asthm Immunol 2010;105:273.e1-78.
  44. Wendell GD, Stark BJ, Jamison RB, et al.  Penicillin allergy and desensitization in serious infections during pregnancy.  N Engl J Med 1985;312:1229-32.
  45. Wong B.  An approach to the patient with penicillin allergy.  Respirology & Allergy Rounds 2005;2(2).
  46. Zvonar RK.  Cross-allergy among the ß-lactam antibiotic agents:  a review of the risks.  Can J Hosp Pharm 2005;58:90-6.