Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Dentistry

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  13. Canadian Dental Association.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with total joint replacement.  CDA November 2007.
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  24. Durack DT.  Antibiotics for prevention of endocarditis during dentistry: time to scale back?  Ann Intern Med 1998;129:829-31.
  25. Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Loli V, et al.  Does antibiotic prophylaxis at implant placement decrease early implant failures?  A Cochrane systematic review.  Eur J Oral Implantol 2010;3:101-10.
  26. Fekete T.  Controversies in the prevention of infective endocarditis related to dental procedures.  Dent Clin North Am 1990;34:79-90.
  27. Field EA, Martin MV.  Prophylactic antibiotics for patients with artificial joints undergoing oral and dental surgery: necessary or not? Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1991;29:341-6.
  28. Friedlander AH, Yoshikawa TT.  Pathogenesis, management, and prevention of infective endocarditis in the elderly dental patient.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;69:177-81.
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  32. Habib AM, Wong AD, Schreiner GC, et al. Postoperative prophylactic antibiotics for facial fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Laryngoscope 2019;129:82-95. https://doi:10.1002/lary.27210.
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  34. Hancock EB, Newell DH.  Antimicrobials in periodontal practice.  Dent Clin North Am 1994;38:719-31.
  35. Heimdahl A, Nord CE.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in oral surgery.  Scand J Infect Dis 1990;70:91-101.
  36. Hupp JR.  Changing methods of preventing infective endocarditis following dental procedures: 1943-1993.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993;51:616-23.
  37. Jacobson JJ, Schweitzer S, DePorter DJ, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with joint prostheses?  A decision analysis.  Int J Technol Assess Health Care 1990;6:569-87.
  38. Jacobson JJ.  Is the jaw bone connected to the hip bone?  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol: 263.
  39. Kashani H, Hilon J, Rasoul MH, et al.  Influence of a single preoperative dose of antibiotics on the early implant failure rate. A randomized clinical trial.  Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2019;21:278–83.
  40. Katoh H, Sasaki J.  Clindamycin, its status as an antimicrobial agent in dentistry and oral surgery.  Oral Ther Pharmacol 1992;11:105-11.
  41. Khouly I, Braun RS, Chambrone L.  Antibiotic prophylaxis may not be indicated for prevention of dental implant infections in healthy patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Clin Oral Invest 2019;23:1525–53.
  42. Khouly I, Braun RS, Silvestre T, et al.  Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in intraoral bone grafting procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020;49:250–63.
  43. Kotze MJ.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing endocarditis and infection in joint prosthesis after dental treatment:  a review of new trends and recommendations in the literature.  SADJ 2008;63:440-4.
  44. Kotze MJ.  Prosthetic joint infection, dental treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis.  Orthopedic Reviews 2009;1:e7-9.
  45. Lancefield M, Conill AM.  Antibiotic prophylaxis.  Hosp Pract 1992;3:126-9.
  46. Little JW, Rhodus NL.  Dental treatment of the liver transplant patient.  Oral Surg Oral med Oral Pathol 1992;73:419-26.
  47. Little JW.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of bacterial endocarditis and infections of major joint prostheses.  Curr Opin Dent 1992;2:93-101.
  48. Little JW.  Managing dental patients with joint prostheses.  JADA 1994;125:1374-8.
  49. Little JW.  Preventing bacterial infections: managing the patient with cardiac defects, implants.  Dent Teamwork 1994;May-June:28-32.
  50. Lockhart PB, Loven B, Brennan MT, et al.  The evidence base for the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in dental practice.  J Am Dent Assoc 2007;138:458-74.
  51. Lockhart PB, Schmidtke MA.  Antibiotic considerations in medically compromised patients.  Dent Clin North Am 1994;38:381-402.
  52. Longman LP, Martin MV.  The use of antibiotics in the prevention of post-operative infection: a re-appraisal.  Br Dent J 1991;170:257-62.
  53. Menon RK, Gopinath D, Li KY, et al.  Does the use of amoxicillin/amoxicillin–clavulanic acid in third molar surgery reduce the risk of postoperative infection? A systematic review with meta-analysis.  Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2019;48:263–73.
  54. Meskin LH.  Focal infection: back with a bang!  JADA 1998;129:8-16.
  55. Milic T, Raidoo P, Gebauer D.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in oral and maxillofacial surgery: a systematic review.  Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021.
  56. Naimi-Akbar A, Hultin M, Klinge A, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery:  a complex systematic review. PLoS ONE 2018;13:e0191161.  
  57. Newman HN.  Focal infection. J Dent Res 1996; 75: 1912-9.
  58. Newman MG.  The role of infection and anti-infection treatment in regenerative therapy. J Periodontol 1993; 64: 1166-70.
  59. Norris LH, Doku HC.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in oral surgery.  Curr Opin Dent 1992;2:85-92.
  60. Olsen I, Snorrason F, Lingaas E.  Should patients with hip joint prosthesis receive antibiotic prophylaxis before dental treatment?  J Oral Microbiol 2010;2:5265-75.
  61. Oral Health Division Ministry of Health Malaysia.  Clinical practice guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis in oral surgery for prevention of surgical site infection 2nd ed.  November 2015.
  62. Pallasch TJ, Slots J.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for medical-risk patients.  J Periodontol 1991;62:227-31.
  63. Pallasch TJ.  A critical appraisal of antibiotic prophylaxis.  Int Dent J 1989;39:183-96.
  64. Pallasch TJ.  Antibiotic prophylaxis: theory and reality.  J Calif Dent Assoc 1989;17:27-39.
  65. Piecuch JF, Arzadon J, Lieblich SE.  Prophylactic antibiotics for third molar surgery: a supportive opinion.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995;53:53-60.
  66. Romandini M, De Tullio I, Congedi F, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis at dental implant placement: which is the best protocol? A systematic review and network meta-analysis.  J Clin Periodontol. 2019;46:382–95.
  67. Rethman MP, Watters W, Abt E, et al.  Prevention of orthopaedic implant infection in patients undergoing dental procedures.  Executive summary on the AAOS/ADA clinical practice guideline.
  68. Sanchez FR,  Andres CR, Arteagoitia I.  Which antibiotic regimen prevents implant failure or infection after dental implant surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis.  J Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surg 2018;46:722-36.
  69. Sanchez FR, Arteagoitia I, Teughels W, et al.  Antibiotic dosage prescribed in oral implant surgery: a meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys.  PLoS ONE 2020;15: e0236981.

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  71. Schwartz AB, Larson EL.  Antibiotic prophylaxis and postoperative complications after tooth extraction and implant placement:  a review of the literature.  J Dentistry 2007;35:881-8.
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  76. Thornhill M.  Amoxicillin is the most effective oral antibiotic prophylaxis regimen for reducing post-invasive dental procedure bacteremia.  J Evid Base Dent Pract 2020: [101464] doi:
  77. Tong D, Theis JC.  Antibiotic prophylaxis and invasive dental treatment in prosthetic joint patients.  J New Zealand Med Assoc 2008;121:1280-5.
  78. Uyemura MC.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for medical and dental procedures.  Postgrad Med 1995;98:137-152.
  79. Voelker R.  Unnecessary antibiotics.  JAMA 1997;278:620.
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  81. Wahl MJ.  Myths of dental-induced prosthetic joint infections.  Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:1420-5.
  82. Walsh LJ.  Serious complications of endodontic infections: some cautionary tales. Aust Dent J 1997; 42: 156-9.
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  84. Weitekamp MR, Caputo GM.  Antibiotic prophylaxis: update on common clinical uses.  Amer Fam Phys 1993;48:597-604.
  85. Yagiela JA.  Prophylactic antibiotics: cardiac and prosthetic considerations.  J Calif Dent Assoc 1995;23:29-40.
  86. Young H, Hirsh J, Hammerberg M, et al.  Dental disease and periprosthetic joint infection.  J Bone Joint Surg Am 2014;96:162-8.
  87. Zeitler DL.  Prophylactic antibiotics for third molar surgery: a dissenting opinion.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995;53:61-4.
  88. Zijderveld SA, DDS, Smeele LE, Kostense PJ, et al.  Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery:  a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1999;57:1403-6.


Recommended Empiric Therapy of Selected Dental Infections 

  1. Addy M, Renton-Harper P.  Local and systemic chemotherapy in the management of periodontal disease: an opinion and review of the concept.  J Oral Rehabil 1996;23:219-31.
  2. American Academy of Periodontology.  Statement on Periostat®; 20 mg doxycycline hyclate capsules for oral administration as an adjunct to scaling and root planning for the treatment of adult periodontitis.
  3. ADA Council on Scientific Affairs.  Antibiotic use in dentistry. JADA 1997;128:648.
  4. Axelsson P.  Current role of pharmaceutical in prevention of caries and periodontal disease. Int Dent J 1993;43:473-82.
  5. Baker KA, Fotos PG.  The management of odontogenic infections. Dent Clin North Am 1994;38:689-706.
  6. Barr CE.  Practical considerations in the treatment of the HIV-infected patient.  Dent Clin North Am 1994;38:403-23.
  7. Berge TI.  Incidence of large third-molar-associated cystic lesions requiring hospitalization. Acta Odontol Scand 1996;54:327-31.
  8. Blondel-Hill E, Nigrin J.  Guide to antimicrobial susceptibility testing & reporting.  3rd ed.  Dynacare Kasper Medical Laboratories/BC Children's Hospital.  2005.
  9. Bridgeman A, Wiesenfeld D, Newland S.  Anatomical considerations in the diagnosis and management of acute maxillofacial bacterial infections. Aust Dent J 1996;41:238-45.
  10. Broughton RA.  Nonsurgical management of deep neck infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992;11:14-8.
  11. Caton J, Blieden T, Adams D, et al.  Subantimicrobial doxycycline therapy for periodontitis.  J Dent Res 1997;76:177 (Abstract #1307).
  12. Caton J, Ciancio S, Crout R, et al.  Adjunctive use of subantimicrobial doxycycline therapy for periodontitis.  J Dent Res 1998;77:1001 (Abstract #2957).
  13. Chow AW, Roser SM,. Brady FA.  Orofacial odontogenic infections. Ann Intern Med 1978;88:392-402.
  14. Chow AW.  Life-threatening infections of the head and neck. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:991-1004.
  15. Ciancio S.  Expanded and future use of mouthrinses. JADA 1994;125:29S-32.
  16. Ciancio S.  Use and abuse of antibiotics in periodontal therapy. Dent Econ 1993;98-100.
  17. Douglass CW, Fox CH.  The emerging field of oral pharmaceuticals. JADA 1994;125:2S-4.
  18. Droz D, Koch L, Lenain A, et al.  Bacterial endocarditis: results of a survey in a children’s hospital in France.  Br Dent J 1997;183:101-5.
  19. Echeverria JJ, Manau GC, Guerrero A.  Supportive care after active periodontal treatment. J Clin Periodontol 1996;23:898-905.
  20. Edlund C, Bjorkman L, Ekstrand J, et al.  Resistance of the normal human microflora to mercury and antimicrobials after exposure to mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:944-50.
  21. Ehrenfeld M.  Clindamycin in the treatment of dental infections.  In: Zambrano D.  Clindamycin in the treatment of human infections.  Kalamazoo MI:  Pharmacia and Upjohn; 1997:12-1-25.
  22. Fine D.  Evaluation of antimicrobial mouthrinses and their bactericidal effectiveness. JADA 1994;125:11S-9.
  23. Firatli E, Unal T, Onan U, et al.  Antioxidative activities of some chemotherapeutics.  A possible mechanism in reducing gingival inflammation. J Clin Periodontol 1994;21:680-3.
  24. Flemming TF, Millan E, Karch H, et al.  Differential clinical treatment outcome after systemic metronidazole and amoxicillin in patients harboring actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and/or porphyromonas gingivalis. J Clin Periodontol 1998;25:380-7.
  25. Genco RJ.  Pharmaceutical and periodontal diseases. JADA 1994;125:11S-9.
  26. Genco RJ.  Using antimicrobial agents to manage periodontal diseases.  JADA 1991;122:31-8.
  27. Gibson M, Wilson M, Strahan D, et al.  Preliminary evaluation of the use of methylene blue, a redox dye, in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:S411-3.
  28. Gilmore WC, Jacobus NV, Borbach SL, et al.  A prospective double-blind evaluation of penicillin versus clindamycin in the treatment of odontogenic infections. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1988;46:1065-70.
  29. Golub LM, Wolff M, Roberts S, et al.  Treating periodontal diseases by blocking tissue-destructive enzymes. JADA 1994;125:163-71.
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  31. Greenstein G, Berman C, Jaffin R.  Chlorhexidine; an adjunct to periodontal therapy.  J Periodontol 1986;57:370-7.
  32. Greenwell H, Bissada NF.  Emerging concepts in periodontal therapy.  Drugs 2002;62:2581-7.
  33. Grenby TH.  The use of sanguinarine in mouthwashes and toothpaste compared with some other antimicrobial agents. Br Dent J 1995;178:254-8.
  34. Haas DA, Epstein JB, Eggert FM.  Antimicrobial resistance: dentistry’s role.  J Can Dent Assoc 1998;64:496-502.
  35. Hammert W.  Odontogenic infections-management and treatment. ODA Journal 1993;32-4.
  36. Hancock EB, Newell DH.  Antimicrobials in periodontal practice. Dent Clin North Am 1994;38:719-31.
  37. Harding AM.  Pharmacologic consideration in pediatric dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 1994;38:733-53.
  38. Har-El G, Aroesty JH, Shaha A, et al.  Changing trends in deep neck abscess. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994;77:446-50.
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  40. Holbrook WP.  Bacterial infections of oral soft tissues. Curr Opin Dent 1991;1:404-10.
  41. Jones JA.  Root caries: prevention and chemotherapy.  Am J Dent 1995;8:352-7.
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  45. Killoy WJ, Polson AM.  Controlled local delivery of antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis.  Dent Clin North Am 1998;42:263-83.
  46. Koerner KR, Taylor SE.  Pharmacologic considerations in the management of oral surgery patients in general dental practice.  Dent Clin North Am 1994;38:237-54.
  47. Kornamn KS.  Controlled –release local delivery antimicrobials in periodontics: prospects for the future. J Periodontol 1993;64:782-91.
  48. Kornman KS, Newman MG, Moore DJ, et al.  The influence of supragingival plaque control on clinical and microbial outcomes following the use of antibiotics for the treatment of periodontitis. J Periodontol 1994;65:848-54.
  49. Kupfer SR.  Prevention of dry socket with clindamycin.  NYSDJ 1995;30-3.
  50. Little JW.  Preventing bacterial infections, managing the patient with cardiac defects, implants.  Dent Teamwork 1994;May-June:28-32.
  51. Loesche WJ.  Bacterial mediatros in periodontal disease. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:S203-10.
  52. Loesche WJ, Grossman NS.  Periodontal disease as a specific, albeit chronic, infection:  diagnosis and treatment.  Clin Micro Rev 2001;14:727-52.
  53. Mandel ID.  Antimicrobial mouthrinses: overview and update. JADA 1994;125:2S-10.
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  55. Marder M, Milgrom P.  Chemotherapy and periodontal disease – a review.  Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1984;18:466-74.
  56. Marsh PD, Bradshaw DJ.  Microbiological effects of new agents in dentifrices for plaque control. Int Dent J 1993;43:399-406.
  57. Marsh PD.  Microbial ecology of dental plaque and its significance in health and disease. Adv Dent Res 1994;8:263-71.
  58. Megran DW, Scheifele DW, Chow AW.  Odontogenic infections. Pediatr Infect Dis 1984;3:257-65.
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  60. Meurman JH.  Dental infections and general health. Quintessence Int 1997; 28:807-11.
  61. Moenning JE, Nelson CL, Kohler RB.  The microbiology and chemotherapy odontogenic infections.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1989;47:976-85.
  62. Mombelli A.  Microbiology of the dental implant. Adv Dent Res 1993;7:202-6.
  63. Needleman IG, Gerlach RW, Baker RA, et al.  Retention, antimicrobial activity, and clinical outcomes following use of a bioerodible tetracycline gel in moderate-to-deep periodontal pockets. J Periodontol 1998;69:578-83.
  64. Newman HN.  Focal infection. J Dent Res 1996;75:1912-9.
  65. Newman M, Kornman K, eds.  Antibiotic/Antimicrobial use in dental practice.  Quintessence Publishing Co. Inc., 1990.
  66. Newman MG.  The role of infection and anti-infection treatment in regenerative therapy. J Periodontol 1993;64:1166-70.
  67. Niessen L.  Oral pharmaceutical and adult dental patients.  JADA 1994;125:54S-62.
  68. Olson AK, Edington EM, Kulid JC, et al.  Update on antibiotics for the endodontic practice. Compend Contin Educ Dent 11:328-32.
  69. Olsvik B, Tenover FC.  Tetracycline resistance in periodontal pathogens. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:S310-3.
  70. Osborn TM, Assael LA, Bell RB.  Deep space neck infection:  principles of surgical management.  Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 2008;20:353-65.
  71. Owens BM, Schuman NJ.  Antibiotics and dentistry: a brief review. J Clin Pediatr Dent 1994;18:129-34.
  72. Pacini N, Zanchi R, Ferara A, et al.  Antimicrobial susceptibility tests on anaerobic oral mixed cultures in periodontal diseases. J Clin Periodontol 1997;24:401-9.
  73. Palcanis KG.  The role of antimicrobials in treatment of periodontal diseases. Gen Dent 1994;130-7.
  74. Pallasch TJ.  Antibiotics for acute orofacial infections. J Calif Dent Assoc 1993;21:34-44.
  75. Pallasch TJ.  How to use antibiotics effectively. J Calif Dent Assoc 1993;21:46-50.
  76. Peterson LJ.  Are they still miracle drugs. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994;78:1-2.
  77. Petersson LG, Edwardsson S, Arends J.  Antimicrobial effect of a dental varnish, in vitro. Swed Dent J 1992;16:183-9.
  78. Piecuch JF, Arzadon J, Lieblich SE.  Prophylactic antibiotics for third molar surgery: a supportive opinion.  J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1995;53:53-60.
  79. Pihlstrom BL, Ammons WF.  Treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis. J Periodontol 1997;68:1246-53.
  80. Pogrel MA.  Antibiotics in general practice. Dent Update 1994;21:274-80.
  81. Pyle MA, Faddoul FF, Terezhalmy GT.  Clinical implications of drugs taken by our patients. Dent Clin North Am 1993;37:73-90.
  82. Pynn BR, Sands T, Pharoah MJ.  part one.  Odontogenic infections: anatomy and radiology.  Oral Health 1995;85:7-21.
  83. Rams TE, Slots J.  Antibiotics in periodontal therapy: an update. Compend Contin Educ Dent 13:1130-45.
  84. Rethman J, Rethman M, Suzuki J.  Controlled-release periodontal chemotherapy: the evolution of antimicrobial delivery systems. 1995;1-8.
  85. Rifkin BR, Vernillo AT, Golub LM.  Blocking periodontal disease progression by inhibiting tissue-destructive enzymes: a potential therapeutic role for tetracyclines and their chemically-modified analogs. J Periodontol 1993;64:819-27.
  86. Robinson BW.  Update on contemporary management of oral maxillofacial infections. Ann R Aust Coll Dent Surg 1994;12:276-8.
  87. Rubinstein Devore L.  Antimicrobial mouthrinses: impact on dental hygiene. JADA 1994;125:23S-8.
  88. Sakaguchi M, Sato S, Ishiyama T, et al.  Characterization and management of deep neck infections.  Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1997;26:131-4.
  89. Sandor GKB, Low DE, Judd PL, et al.  Antimicrobial treatment options in the management of odontogenic infections. J Can Dent Assoc 1998;64:508-14.
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  91. Sands T, Pynn BR.  Odontogenic infections and clindamycin. UTDJ 1995;9:32-3.
  92. Seymour RA, Heasman PA.  Tetracyclines in the management of periodontal diseases-a review. J Clin Periodontol 1995;22:22-35.
  93. Seymour RA, Steele JG.  Is there a link between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease? Br Dent J 1998;184:33-8.
  94. Slots J.  Systemic antibiotics in periodontics.  J Periodontol 1996;67:831-8.
  95. Solomkin JS, Miyagawa CI.  Principles of antibiotic therapy. Surg Clin North Am 1994;74:497-517.
  96. Stoor P, Soderling E, Salonen JI.  Antibacterial effects of a bioactive glass paste on oral microorganisms. Acta Odontol Scand 1998;56:161-5.
  97. Swanson AE.  Prevention of dry socket: an overview.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;70:131-6.
  98. Talan DA.  The role of new antibiotics for the treatment of infections in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1994;24:473-89.
  99. Tanner A, Maiden MFJ, Lee K, et al.  Dental implant infections. Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:S213-7.
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  101. ten Cate JM, Marsh PD.  Procedures for establishing efficacy of antimicrobial agents for chemotherapeutic caries prevention. J Dent Res 1994;73:695-703.
  102. Terpenning M, Bretz W, Lopatin D, et al.  Bacterial colonization of saliva and plaque in the elderly. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:S314-6.
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