Infections in Pregnancy


Exposure to Selected Communicable Diseases During Pregnancy


  1. Beaman MH, McCabe RE, Wong S-Y, et al.  Toxoplasma gondii.  In: Mandel GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds.  Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 4th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1995:2455-75.
  2. Capital Health.  Communicable disease guidelines for hospital personnel.  Edmonton, Alberta 1998.
  3. Centers for Disease Control.  Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases.  CDC, Department of Health & Human Services. USA.
  4. Crane JMG.  Prenatal exposure to viral infections.  Can J CME; November 1998:61-75.
  5. Ford-Jones EL.  An approach to the diagnosis of congenital infections.  Pediatr Child Health 1999;4:109-12.
  6. Heymann DL, ed.  Control of communicable diseases manual.  19th ed.  Washington DC:  American Public Health Association; 2008.
  7. Kropp RY, Wong T, Cormier L, et al.  Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in Canada: results of a 3-year national prospective study.  Pediatrics 2006;117:1955-62.
  8. Money DM.  Viral infections in pregnancy.  Can J CME; January 1996:93-103.
  9. Vaudry W, Lee BE, Rosychuk R, et al. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in Canada: Cases reported by pediatricians to the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program. Canadian Paediatric Society Annual Conference, Victoria,BC, June 2008. (Oral presentation)


Prevention of Perinatal Infection

  1. Intrapartum Antimicrobial Prophylaxis of Group B Streptococcal (GBS) disease
    AAP Committee on Infectious diseases and Committee on Fetus and Newborn.  Revised guidelines for prevention of early-onset Group B Streptococcal (GBS) infection.  Pediatrics 1997;99:489-96.
  2. Alberta/BC Conjoint Group B Streptococcus CPG Working Group.  Recommendations for prevention of neonatal early-onset Group B Streptococcal (GBS) infection.
  3. Allen U.  Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease in Canada:  an update.  Paediatr Child Health 1997;2:319-23.
  4. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Obstetric Practice. Prevention of early-onset Group B Streptococcal disease in newborns.  ACOG 1996;173:1-8.
  5. Capital Health Women’s Health Program.  Group B streptococcus.  Revised May 2004.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Prevention of perinatal Group B streptococcal disease.  Revised guidelines from CDC. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 2002; 51(No. RR-11):1-22.
  7. Demianczuk NN, Halperin SA, McMillan DD. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal infection:  management strategies.  Can J Infect Dis 1997;8:68-70.
  8. Mercer BM, Miodovnik M, Thurnau GR, et al.  Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes.  A randomized controlled trial.  National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. JAMA 1997;278:989-95.
  9. Mercer BM, Lewis R.  Preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Diagnosis and management.  Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997;11:177-201.
  10. Prevention of group B streptococcal infection in newborns:  recommendation statement from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.  CMAJ 2002; 166(7):928-30.
  11. Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.  Statement on the prevention of early-onset Group B Streptococcal infections in the newborn.  SOGC 1997;61:1-9.


Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Preterm Rupture of Membranes

  1. Capital Health Women’s Health Program.  Preterm Rupture of Membranes.  June 2003.
  2. Kenyon SL, Taylor DJ, Tarnow-Mordi W, for the ORACLE Collaborative Group.  Broad-spectrum antibiotics for preterm, prelabour rupture of fetal membranes:  the ORACLE I randomised trial.  Lancet 2001; 357:979-88.
  3. Mercer BM, Miodovnik M, Thurnau GR, et al.  Antibiotic therapy for reduction of infant morbidity after preterm premature rupture of the membranes:  a randomized controlled trial.  JAMA 1997; 278:989-95.

Perinatal HIV protocol

  1. Burdge DR, Money DM, Forbes JC, et al.  Canadian consensus guidelines for the care of HIV-positive pregnant women:  putting recommendations into practice.  CMAJ 2003;168:1683-8.
  2. Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1 Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV-1 Transmission in the United States. July 31, 2012: pp i- J3. Accessed at:
  3. BC Women’s Hospital and Health Centre.  Clinical Guidelines/HIV Protocols, 2010. Accessed at: 
  4. CDC. Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents and Pregnant Women in Health Care Settings.  MMWR 2006; 55(RR14); 1-17
  5. AIDS info.  HIV and Pregnancy. Health Information for Patients.  December 2010. Accessed at:
  6. Canadian HIV Trials Network Working Group on Vertical HIV Transmission.  Canadian consensus guidelines for the management of pregnancy, labour and delivery and for postpartum care in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring (summary of 2002) guidelines.  Commentary.  CMAJ 2003; 168(13): 1671-74.
  7. Nizova NN, Posokhova SP.  Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: A Practical Guide to the Prevention and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2nd edition. American International Health Alliance, Feb 2005.