Prophylaxis Recommendations

General Surgery

  1. Anon.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery.  Med Lett Treatment Guidelines 2012;10:73-8.
  2. Bauer T, Vennits B, Holm B, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in acute nonperforated appendicitis.  Ann Surg 1989;209:307-11.
  3. Bergamini TM, Polk HC.  The importance of tissue antibiotic activity in the prevention of operative wound infection.  J Antimicrob Chemother 1989;23:301-13.
  4. Bode LGM, Kluytmans JAJW, Wertheim HFL, et al.  Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.  N Engl J Med 2010:362;9-17.
  5. Bohnen JMA.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in general surgery.  Can J Surg 1991;34:548-50.
  6. Bratzler DW, Dellinger EP, Olsen KM, et al.  Clinical practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery.  Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2013;70:195-283.
  7. Bratzler DW, Houck PM.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery:  an advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention project.  Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1706-15.
  8. Burke JF.  Timing antibiotics to prevent infection.  Drug Therapy 1976;Feb:209-19.
  9. Clinical and economic considerations in antimicrobial surgical prophylaxis.  Drugs and Therapy Perspectives 1993;2:12-14.
  10. Cranny G, Elliott R, Weatherly H, et al.  A systematic review and economic model of switching from non-glycopeptide to glycopeptide antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery.  Health Technology Assessment 2008;12: no. 1.
  11. Dellinger EP, Gross PA, Barrett TL, et al.  Quality standard for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical procedures.  Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:422-7.
  12. Dellinger EP.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in trauma: penetrating abdominal injuries and open fractures.  Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:S847-57.
  13. Devlin TB.  Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Practice Guidelines: antibiotic prophylaxis for gastrointestinal endoscopy.  Can J Gastroenterol 1999;13:819-21.
  14. Edmiston CE, Krepel C, Kelly H, et al.  Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in the gastric bypass patient:  do we achieve therapeutic levels?  Surgery 2004;136:738-47.
  15. Farr BM.  Mupirocin to prevent S. aureus infections.  N Engl J Med 2002;346:1905-6.
  16. Forse RA, Karam B, MacLean LD, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery in morbidly obese patients.  Surgery 1989;106:750-7.
  17. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, eds.  The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2013. Sperryville, VA:  Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc. 2013.
  18. Gorbach SL.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis for appendectomy and colorectal surgery.  Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:S815-20.
  19. Gottrup F, Hunt TK.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in appendectomy patients. World J Surg 1982;6:306-11.
  20. Higgins A, et al.  Prophylactic antibiotics for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  Are they necessary? Arch Surg 1999;134:611-4.
  21. Hirota WK, Petersen K, Baron TH, et al.  Guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy.  Gastrointest Endosc 2003;58:475-82.
  22. Ho VP, Nicolau DP, Dakin GF, et al.  Cefazolin dosing for surgical prophylaxis in morbidly obese patients.  Surg Infect 2012;13:33-7.
  23. Hopkins CC.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in clean surgery: peripheral vascular surgery, noncardiovascular thoracic surgery, herniorrhaphy and mastectomy.  Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:S869-73.
  24. Kanji S, Devlin JW.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery.  In:  Dipiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, eds.  Pharmacotherapy. 6th ed.  McGraw-Hill;2005:2217-29.
  25. Kernodle DS, Kaiser AB.  Postoperative infections and antimicrobial prophylaxis.  In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, et al, eds.  Principles and practice of infectious diseases.  5th ed.  New York: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 2000;3177-91.
  26. Lau WY, Chu KW, Poon GP, et al.  Prophylactic antibiotics in elective colorectal surgery.  Br J Surg 1988;75:782-5.
  27. Laupland KB, Conly JM.  Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and prophylaxis for infection with topical intranasal mupirocin:  an evidence-based review.  Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:933-8.
  28. Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, et al.  Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Am J Infect Control 1999;27:97-134.
  29. Matsen JM.  The frequency of bacterial pathogens in infections potentially preventable by antimicrobial prophylaxis. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1990;70:9-17.
  30. Nichols RL, Smith JW, Garcia RY, et al.  Current practices of preoperative bowel preparation among North American colorectal surgeons.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:609-19.
  31. Nichols RL, Smith JW, Klein DB, et al.  Risk of infection after penetrating abdominal trauma.  N Engl J Med 1984;311:1065-70.
  32. Norrby SR.  Cost-effective prophylaxis of surgical infections.  PharmacoEconomics 1996;10:128-40.
  33. Oates JA, Wood AJJ.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. N Engl J Med 1986;315:1129-38.
  34. Page CP, Bohnen JMA, Fletcher JR, et al.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgical wounds: Guidelines for clinical care. Arch Surg 1993;128:79-88.
  35. Perl TM, Cullen JJ, Wenzel RP, et al.  Intranasal mupirocin to prevent postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections.  N Engl J Med 2002;346:1871-7.
  36. Platt R, Zaleznik DF, Hopkins CC, et al.  Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for herniorrhaphy and breast surgery.  N Engl J Med 1990;322:153-60.
  37. Roland M.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery and appendicitis.  Scand J Infect Dis 1990;70:36-44.
  38. Ruiz-Tovar J, Santos J,  Arroyo A, et al.  Effect of peritoneal lavage with clindamycin-gentamicin solution on infections after elective colorectal cancer surgery.  J Am Coll Surg 2012;214:202-7.
  39. Sanchez-Manuel FJ, Lozano-Garcia J, Seco-Gil JL.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for hernia repair (review).  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003769. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003769.pub4.
  40. Tan E, Hart LL.  Metronidazole/neomycin as preoperative bowel preparation.  Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:1064-6.
  41. Toma O, Suntrup P, Stefanescu A, et al.  Pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of cefoxitin in obesity:  implications for risk of surgical site infection.  Anesth Analg 2011;113:730-7.
  42. van Rijen M, Bonten M, Wenzel R, et al.  Mupirocin ointment for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections in nasal carriers.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008, Issue 4. Art. No.:CD006216.
  43. Von Eiff C, Kipp F, Becker K.  Intranasal mupirocin to prevent postoperative infections.  N Engl J Med 2002;347:1207-8.
  44. Waddell TK, Rotstein OD.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Can Med Assoc J 1994;151:925-31.
  45. Weber WP, Marti WR, Zwahlen M, et al.  The timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis.  Ann Surg 2008;247:918-26.
  46. Winslow RE, Dean RE, Harley JW.  Acute nonperforating appendicitis.  Arch Surg 1983;118:651-5.
  47. Zelenitsky SA, Ariano RE, Harding GKM, et al.  Antibiotic pharmacodynamics in surgical prophylaxis:  an association between intraoperative antibiotic concentrations and efficacy.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:3026-30.
  48. Zelenitsky SA, Silverman RE, Duckworth H, et al.  A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of single high dose versus multiple standard dose gentamicin both in combination with metronidazole for colorectal surgical prophylaxis.  J Hospital Infection 2000;46:135-40.

   Cardiovascular Surgery

  1. Cesar de Oliveira J, Martinelli M, D’Orio Nishioka SA.  Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis before the implantation of pacemakers and cardioverter-defibrillators:  results of a large, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.  Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2009;2;29-34.
  2. Cimochowski GE, Harostock MD, Brown R, et al.  Intranasal mupirocin reduces sternal wound infection after open heart surgery in diabetics and nondiabetics.  Ann Thorac Surg 2001;71:1572-9.
  3. Conklin CM, Gray RJ, Neilson D, et al.  Determinants of wound infection incidence after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery in patients randomized to receive prophylactic cefuroxime or cefazolin.  Ann Thorac Surg 1988;46:172-7.
  4. Curtis JJ, Boley TM, Walls JT, et al.  Randomized prospective comparison of first and second generation cephalosporins as infection prophylaxis for cardiac surgery.  Am J Surg 1993;166:734-7.
  5. Da Costa A, Kirkorian G, Cucherat M, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta-analysis.  Circulation 1998;97:1796-1801.
  6. Doebbeling B, et al.  Cardiovascular surgery prophylaxis: a randomized controlled comparison of cefazolin and cefuroxime.  J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1990;99:981-9.
  7. Edwards W, et al.  Cefuroxime versus cefazolin as prophylaxis in vascular surgery.  J Vasc Surg 1992;15:35-41.
  8. Edwards FH, Engelman RM, Houck P, et al.  The Society of Thoracic Surgeons practice guideline series:  Antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery, part 1:  Duration.  Ann Thorac Surg 2006;81:397-404.
  9. Engelman R, Shahian D, Shemin R, et al.  The Society of Thoracic Surgeons practice guideline series:  Antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery, part 2:  Antibiotic choice.  Ann Thorac Surg 2007;83:1569-76.
  10. Garey KW, Dao T, Chen H, et al.  Timing of vancomycin prophylaxis for cardiac surgery patients and the risk of surgical site infections.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;58:645-50.
  11. Gentry LO, Zeluff BJ, Cooley DA.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in open-heart surgery:  a comparison of cefamandole, cefuroxime and cefazolin.  Ann Thorac Surg 1988;46:167-71.
  12. Geroulanos S, Oxelbark S, Turina M.  Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in cardiovascular surgery.  A prospective randomized trial comparing two day cefuroxime prophylaxis with four day cefazolin prophylaxis.  J Cardiovasc Surg 1986;27:300-6.
  13. Harbarth S, Samore MH, Lichtenberg D, et al.  Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis after cardiovascular surgery and its effect on surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance.  Circulation 2000;101:2916-21.
  14. Kluytmans JAJW, Mouton JW, VandenBerg MFQ, et al.  Reduction of surgical site infections in cardiothoracic surgery by elimination of nasal carriage of S. aureus.  Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996:17;780-5.
  15. Kreter B, Woods M.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for cardiothoracic operations-metaanalysis of thirty years of clinical trials.  J Thor Cardiovasc Surg 1992;104:590-9.
  16. Lador A, Nasir H, Mansur N, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery:  systematic review and meta-analysis.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2012;67:541-50.
  17. Mertz D, Johnstone J, Loeb M.  Does duration of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis matter in cardiac surgery?  A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Ann Surg 2011;254:48-54.
  18. Miedzinski LJ, Callaghan JC, Fanning EA, et al.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis for open heart operations.  Ann Thor Surg 1990;50:800-7.
  19. Morales DLS, Oz MC.  Mechanical circulatory assist devices in critical care management.  New Horiz 1999;7:489-503.
  20. Peterson CD, Lake KD, Arom KV, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in open-heart surgery patients: comparison of cefamandole and cefuroxime.  Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1987;21:728-32.
  21. Slama TG, Sklar SJ, Misinski J, et al.  Randomized comparison of cefamandole, cefazolin and cefuroxime prophylaxis in open-heart surgery.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1986;29:744-7.
  22. Townsend TR, Reitz BA, Bilker WB, et al.  Clinical trial of cefamandole, cefazolin, and cefuroxime for antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac operations.  J Thor Cardiovasc Surg 1993;106:664-70.
  23. Wellens F, et al.  Prophylaxis in cardiac surgery.  A controlled randomized comparison between cefazolin and cefuroxime. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1995;9:325-9.
  24. Woods M, Tillman D.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiothoracic surgery 1990: results of a third study.  Hosp Pharm 1992;27:404-7.

   Head and Neck Surgery

  1. Carroll WR, Rosenstiel D, Fix JR, et al.  Three-dose vs extended-course clindamycin prophylaxis for free-flap reconstruction of the head and neck.  Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;129:771-4.
  2. Johnson JT, Yu VL.  Antibiotic use during major head and neck surgery.  Ann Surg 1987;207:108-11.
  3. Velanovich V.  A meta-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in head and neck surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg 1990;87:429-35.


  1. Barker FG II.  Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotic therapy in spinal surgery:  a meta-analysis.  Neurosurgery 2002;51:391-401.
  2. Brown EM, deLouvois J, Bayston R, et al.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in neurosurgery and after head injury.  Lancet 1994;344:1547-51.
  3. Brown EM, Pople IK, deLouvois J, et al.  Spine update.  Prevention of postoperative infection in patients undergoing spinal surgery.  Spine 2004;29:938-45.
  4. Korinek AM, Baugnon T, Golmard JL, et al.  Risk factors for adult nosocomial meningitis after craniotomy:  role of antibiotic prophylaxis.  Neurosurgery 2008;62 suppl 2:532-9.
  5. Langley JM, Leblanc JC, Drake J, et al.  Efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis in placement of cerebrospinal fluid shunts: meta-analysis.  Clin Infect Dis 1993;17:98-103.
  6. Rhoten RL, Murphy MA, Kalfas IH, et al.  Antibiotic penetration into cervical discs.  Neurosurgery 1995;37:418-21.
  7. Rubinstein E, Findler G, Amit P, et al.  Perioperative prophylactic cephazolin in spinal surgery:  a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.  J Bone Joint Surg Br 1994;76:99-102.
  8. Shapiro M.  Prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery and neurosurgery: a critical review.  Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:S858-68.

   Obstetrical/Gynecological Surgery

  1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for gynecologic procedures.  Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:1180-9.
  2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.  Use of prophylactic antibiotics in labor and delivery.  Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:1472-83.
  3. Campillo F, Rubio JM.  Comparative study of single-dose cefotaxime and multiple doses of cefoxitin and cefazolin as prophylaxis in gynecologic surgery.  Am J Surg 1992; 4A:12S-5S.
  4. Carlson C, Duff P.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean delivery: is an extended-spectrum agent necessary?  Obstet Gynecol 1990;76:343-6.
  5. Chelmow D, Hennesy M, Evantash EG.  Prophylactic antibiotics for nonlaboring patients with intact membranes undergoing cesarean delivery:  an economic analysis.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:1661-5.
  6. Chelmow D, Ruehli MS, Huang E.  Prophylactic use of antibiotics for nonlaboring patients undergoing cesarean delivery with intact membranes:  a meta-analysis.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:656-61.
  7. Costantine MM, Rahman M, Ghulmiyah L, et al.  Timing of perioperative antibiotics for cesarean delivery:  a metaanalysis.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199:301.e1-6.
  8. Crombleholme WR.  Use of prophylactic antibiotics in obstetrics and gynecology.  Clin Obstet Gynecol 1988;31:466-72.
  9. Currier JS, Tosteson TD, Platt R.  Cefazolin compared with cefoxitin for cesarean section prophylaxis: the use of a two-stage study design.  J Clin Epidemiol 1993;46:625-30.
  10. Faro S.  Antibiotic prophylaxis. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 1989;16:279-89.
  11. Gjonnaess H.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in gynaecological and obstetric surgery.  Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1990;70:52-67.
  12. Griffiths J, Demianczuk N, Cordoviz M, et al.  Surgical site infection following elective caesarean section:  a case-control study of postdischarge surveillance.  J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2005;27:340-4.
  13. Hager WD, Rapp RP, Billeter M, et al.  Choice of antibiotic in nonelective cesarean section.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991;35:1782-4.
  14. Hemsell DL, Bawdon RE, Hemsell PG, et al.  Single-dose cephalosporin for prevention of major pelvic infection after vaginal hysterectomy:  cefazolin versus cefoxitin versus cefotaxime.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987;156:1201-5.
  15. Hemsell DL, Johnson ER, Hemsell PG, Nobles BJ, et al.  Cefazolin is inferior to cefotetan as single-dose prophylaxis for women undergoing elective total abdominal hysterectomy.  Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:677-84.
  16. Hemsell DL.  Prophylactic antibiotics in gynecologic and obstetric surgery.  Rev Infect Dis 1991; 13(suppl 10): S821-41.
  17. Houang ET.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in hysterectomy and induced abortion.  Drugs 1991;41:19-37.
  18. Jakobi P, Weissman A, Zimmer EZ, et al.  Single-dose cefazolin prophylaxis for cesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;158:1049-52.
  19. Kaimal AJ, Zlatnik MG, Cheng YW, et al.  Effect of a change in policy regarding the timing of prophylactic antibiotics on the rate of postcesarean delivery surgical-site infections.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199:310.e1-5..
  20. Periti P, Mazzei T, Periti E.  Prophylaxis in gynaecological and obstetric surgery: a comparative randomized multicentre study of single-dose cefotetan versus two doses of cefazolin.  Chemioterapia 1988;7:245-52.
  21. Probst JR, Benrubi GI, Sanchez-Ramos L, et al.  Comparison of one dose cefazolin versus one dose cefotetan for cesarean section prophylaxis.  J Florida Med Assoc 1989;76:1027-9.
  22. Scher KS, Bernstein JM, Arenstein GL, et al.  Reducing the cost of surgical prophylaxis.  Am Surg 1990;56:32-5.
  23. Shapiro M, Schoenbaum SC, Tager IB, et al.  Benefit-cost analysis of antimicrobial prophylaxis in abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy.  JAMA 1983;249:1290-4.
  24. Smaill F, Hofmeyr GJ.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section [review] revised 14 Apr 2004.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  The Cochrane Collaboration; Issue, Oxford:  Update Software;2004.
  25. Smaill FM, Gyte GM.  Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis for preventing infection after cesarean section.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD007482.
  26. Society of Family Planning.  Prevention of infection after induced abortion.  Contraception 2011;83:295-309.
  27. Sonnichsen DS, Nakagawa RS.  A drug utilization review of surgical prophylaxis in obstetrics and gynecology.  Can J Hosp Pharm 1990;43:281-7.
  28. Sumilo D, Nirantharakumar K, Willis BH, et al.  Long term impact of prophylactic antibiotic use before incision versus after cord clamping on children born by caesarean section: longitudinal study of UK electronic health records.  BMJ 2022;377:e069704 | doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-069704.
  29. Sullivan SA, Smith T, Chang E, et al.  Administration of cefazolin prior to skin incision is superior to cefazolin at cord clamping in preventing postcesarean infectious morbidity:  a randomized, controlled trial.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196:455.e1-5.
  30. Tita ATN, Rouse DJ, Blackwell S, et al.  Emerging concepts in antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean delivery.  Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:675-82.
  31. Van Eyk N, van Schalkwyk J.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in gynaecologic procedures.  J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2012;34:382-91.
  32. Van Schalkwyk J, van Eyk N.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetric procedures.  J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2010;247:879-85.

   Ophthalmic Surgery

  1. Baum JL.  Antibiotic use in ophthalmology.  In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds.  Duane’s clinical ophthalmology.  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott-Raven Publishers; 1995: 4(26): 1-26.
  2. Grimes SR, Mein CE, Trevino S.  Preoperative antibiotic and povidone-iodine preparation of the eye.  Ann Ophthalmol 1991;23:263-6.
  3. Hurley LD, Westfall CT, Shore JW.  Prophylactic use of antibiotics in oculoplastic surgery.   Int Ophthalmol Clin 1992;32:165-178.
  4. Ing MR.  Infection following strabismus surgery.  Ophthalmic Surg 1991;22:41-3.
  5. Kolker AE, Freeman MI, Petit TH.  Prophylactic antibiotics and postoperative endophthalmitis. Am J Ophthalmol  1967;63:434-9.
  6. Lean JS, Chignell AH.  Infection following retinal detachment surgery.  Br J Ophthalmol 1977;61:593-4.
  7. Masket S, ed.  Consultation section.  J Cataract Refract Surg 1993;19:108-11.
  8. McCoy DA, Rains DE.  Studies on control of infections at time of intraocular surgery.  Ann Ophthalmol 1971;3:982-6.
  9. McMillan JJ, Mead MD.  Prophylactic subconjunctival antibiotics after cataract extraction - evaluation of their desirability and efficacy. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1994;34:43-9.
  10. Meredith TA.  Prevention of postoperative infection.  Arch Ophthalmol 1991;109:944-5.
  11. Ndegwa S, Cimon K, Severn M.  Intracameral antibiotics for the prevention of endophthalmitis post-cataract surgery:  review of clinical and cost-effectiveness and guidelines.  CADTH October 2010.
  12. Radda TM, Grasl MM, Gnad HD.  Perioperative prevention of infection in ophthalmic surgery. Antibiot Chemother 1985;33:184-97.
  13. Starr MB, Lally JM.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis for ophthalmic surgery. Surv Ophthalmol 1995;39:485-501.
  14. Walland MJ, Rose GE.  Soft tissue infections after open lacrimal surgery. Ophthalmology 1994;101:608-11.

   Orthopedic Surgery

  1. Clarke HJ, Jinnah RH, Byank RP, et al.  Clostridium difficile infection in orthopaedic patients.  J Bone Joint Surg 1990;72A:1056-9.
  2. Court-Brown CM.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1990;70:74-9.
  3. Cummins JS, Tomek IM, Kantor SR, et al.  Cost-effectiveness of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement used in primary total hip arthroplasty.  J Bone Joint Surg Am 2009;91:634-41.
  4. Dellinger EP.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in trauma:  penetrating abdominal injuries and open fractures.  Rev Infect Dis 1991;3:S847-57.
  5. Gillespie WJ.  Prevention and management of infection after total joint replacement.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:1310-7.
  6. Hauser CJ, Adams CA, Eachempati SR.  Prophylactic antibiotic use of open fractures:  an evidence-based guideline.  Surgical Infections 2006;7:379-405.
  7. Hayashi K.  Other antibiotics.  Clin Orthopaed Rel Research 1984;190:109-13.
  8. Kalmeijer MD, Coertjens H, van Nieuwland-Bollen PM, et al.  Surgical site infections in orthopedic surgery:  the effect of mupirocin nasal ointment in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.  Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:353-8.
  9. Kim DH, Spencer M, Davidson SM, et al.  Institutional prescreening for detection and eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery.  J Bone Joint Surg Am 2010;92:1820-6.
  10. Luer MS, Hatton J.  Appropriateness of antibiotic selection and use in laminectomy and microdiskectomy.  Am J Hosp Pharm 1993;50:667-70.
  11. McIntosh J, Earnshaw JJ.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of infection after major limb amputation.  Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2009;37:696-703.
  12. Norden CW.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopedic surgery.  Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:S842-6.
  13. Rao N, Cannella B, Crossett LS, et al.  A preoperative decolonization protocol for Staphylococcus aureus prevents orthopaedic infections.  Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008;466:1343-8.
  14. Slover J, Haas JP, Quirno M, et al.  Cost-effectiveness of a Staphylococcus aureus screening and decolonization program for high-risk orthopedic patients.  J Arthroplasty 2011;26:360-5.
  15. Wininger DA, Fass RJ.  Antibiotic - impregnated cement and beads for orthopedic infections.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996;40:2675-9.

   Plastics Surgery

  1. Aydin N, Uraloglu M, Yilmaz AD, et al.  A prospective trial on the use of antibiotics in hand surgery.  Plast Reconstr Surg 2010;126:1617-23.
  2. Bunn F, Cunningham ME, Handscomb K.  Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006, Issue 2.  Art No. CD005360.
  3. Bykowski MR, Sivak WN, Cray J, et al.  Assessing the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis in outpatient elective hand surgery:  a single-center, retrospective review of 8,850 cases.  J Hand Surg 2011;36A:1741-7.
  4. Gahm J, Konstantinidou AL, Lagergren J, et al.  Effectiveness of single vs multiple doses of prophylactic intravenous antibiotics in implant-based breast reconstruction:a randomized clinical trial.  JAMA Network Open 2022;5(9):e2231583.  doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.31583
  5. Harness NG, Inacio MC, Pfeil FF, et al.  Rate of infection after carpal tunnel release surgery and effect of antibiotic prophylaxis.  J Hand Surg Am 2010;35:189-96.

   Spinal Surgery

  1. Linam WM, Margolis PA, Staat MA, et al.  Risk factors associated with surgical site infection after pediatric posterior spinal fusion procedure.  Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30:109-16.

   Thoracic Surgery

  1. Bernard A, Pillet M, Goudet P, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in pulmonary surgery.  A prospective randomized double-blind trial of flash cefuroxime versus forty-eight hour cefuroxime.  J Thor Cardiovasc Surg 1994;107:896-900.
  2. Sharpe DA, Renwick P, Mathews KH, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in oesophageal surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1992;6:561-4.

   Urologic Surgery

  1. American Urological Association.  Best practice policy statement on urologic surgery antimicrobial prophylaxis.  Updated Sep 2008.  Revised 9/20/2012.
  2. Carignan A, Roussy JF, Lapointe V, et al.  Increasing risk of infectious complications after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies:  time to reassess antimicrobial prophylaxis?  Eur Urol 2012;62:453-9.
  3. Gonzalez CM, Averch T, Boyd LA, et al.  AUA/SUNA white paper on the incidence, prevention and treatment of complications related to prostate needle biopsy.  Amer Urol Assoc Education and Research 2012.
  4. Larsen EH, Gasser TC, Madsen PO.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in urologic surgery. Urol Clin North Am 1986;13:591-602.
  5. Mrkobrada M, Ying I, Mokrycke S, et al.  CUA guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis for urologic procedures.  Can Urol Assoc J 2015;9:13-22.
  6. Murdoch DA, Badenoch DF, Gatchalian ER.  Oral ciprofloxacin as prophylaxis in transurethral resection of the prostate. Br J Urol 1987;60:153-6.
  7. Roach MB, Figueroa TE, McBride D, et al.  Ciprofloxacin versus gentamicin in prophylaxis against bacteremia in transrectal prostate needle biopsy.  Urology 1991;38:84-7.
  8. Taylor AK, Zembower TR, Nadler RB, et al.  Targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis using rectal swab cultures in men undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy is associated with reduced incidence of postoperative infectious complications and cost of care.  J Urology 2012;187:1275-9.
  9. Taylor S, Margolick J, Abughosh Z, et al.  Ciprofloxacin resistance in the faecal carriage of patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.  BJU Int 2013 Mar 6. doi:  10.1111/j. 1464-410X.2012.11637.x
  10. Wolf JS, Bennett CJ, Dmochowski RR, et al.  Best practice policy statement on urologic surgery antimicrobial prophylaxis.  J Urology 2008:179;1379-90.




  1. Alberta Health and Wellness.  Alberta guidelines for post exposure prophylaxis in non-occupational settings: HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and sexually transmitted infections.  (Alberta nPEP Protocol).  September 2008.  Revised January 2010.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection-drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV in the United States.  Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 2005;54(RR02):1-20.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis.  Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 2001;50(RR-11):1-52. 
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis.  Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 2005;54(RR-9):1-17.
  5. Gerberding JL.  Prophylaxis for occupational exposure to HIV.  Ann Intern Med 1996;125:497-501.
  6. Health Canada, HPB-LCDC.  An integrated protocol to manage health care workers exposed to bloodborne pathogens.  Can Commun Dis Rep 1997;23:S2.


Sexual Assault

  1. Linden JA.  Care of the adult patient after sexual assault.  New Engl J Med 2011;365:834-41.
  2. Public Health Agency of Canada Expert Working Group on the Canadian guidelines on sexually transmitted infections.  Canadian guidelines on sexually transmitted infections.  Sexual assault in postpubertal adolescents and adults.  Available at:   Accessed Feb 2012.


Prophylaxis for Contacts of Communicable Diseases

   Neisseria meningitidis

  1. Alberta Health and Wellness Disease Control and Prevention.  Public Health Notifiable Disease Management Guidelines.  Invasive meningococcal disease. June 2005.
  2. Alberta Health and Wellness.  Public Health Notifiable Disease Management Guidelines.  Influenza (Seasonal). January 2011.
  3. Alberta Health and Wellness.  Public Health Notifiable Disease Management Guidelines.  Varicella (Chickenpox). January 2012.
  4. Deal WB, Sanders E.  Efficacy of rifampin in treatment of meningococcal carriers.  N Engl J Med 1969;281:641‑5.
  5. Gaunt PN, Lambert BE.  Single dose ciprofloxacin for the eradication of pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis.  J Antimicrob Chemother 1988;21:489‑96.
  6. Purcell B, Samuelsson S, Hahne SJM, et al.  Effectiveness of antibiotics in preventing meningococcal disease after a case:  systematic review.  BMJ 2004;328:1339-43.
  7. Rosenstein NE, Perkins BA, Stephens DS, et al.  Meningococcal disease.  N Engl J Med 2001;344:1378-88.

   Haemophilus influenza

  1. Alberta Health and Wellness Disease Control and Prevention.  Public Health Notifiable Disease Management Guidelines.  Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease. June 2005.

   Group A Streptococcal Disease

  1. Alberta Advisory Committee on Communicable Disease Control, 1996.
  2. Allen UD, Moore DL, Canadian Pediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee.  Invasive group A streptococcal disease:  management and chemoprophylaxis.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2010;21:115-8.
  3. Capital Health Regional Public Health Communicable Disease Corner 1999(Aug);3: 8.
  4. Davies HD, McGeer A, Schwartz B, et al.  Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada.  N Engl J Med 1996;335:547-54.
  5. Public Health Agency of Canada. Guidelines for the prevention and control of invasive Group A Streptococcal disease.  CCDR 2006;32S2:1-26.
  6. The Working Group on Prevention of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections.  Prevention of invasive group A streptococcal disease among household contacts of case-patients.  JAMA 1998;279:1206-10.


  1. Anon.  Antiviral drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.  Med Lett Drugs Ther 2005;47:93-5.
  2. Canada Communicable Diseases Report 2005;31(ACS-6):1-32. vol 31/asc-dcc-6/index.html.
  3. The MIST (Management of Influenza in the Southern Hemisphere Trialists) Study Group.  Randomised trial of efficacy and safety of inhaled zanamivir in treatment of influenza A and B virus infections.  Lancet 1998;352:1877-81.

   Public Health

  1. Alberta Health and Wellness Public Health Notifiable Disease Management Guidelines.  Pertussis.  August 2011.
  2. Health Canada.  National Consensus Conference on Pertussis.  Can Commun Dis Rep 2003; 2953.
  3. Hewlett EL, Edwards KM.  Pertussis – not just for kids.  N Engl J Med 2005;352:1215-22.

   Varicella zoster

  1. Capital Health Regional Public Health Communicable Disease Corner 1997(Sep);8: 2-3.
  2. Estrada B.  What’s new in varicella vaccine?  Infect Med 2000;17:150.
  3. Communicable Disease Control – Immunization Program – British Columbia June 2005.


Infection Prevention and Control

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Guidelines for hand hygiene in health-care settings:  Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force.  Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 2002;51(RR-16):1-44.
  2. Health Canada.  Routine practices and additional precautions for preventing the transmission of infection in health care. Can Commun Dis Rep 1999;25S4.
  4. Muto CA, Jernigan JA, Ostrowsky BE, et al.  SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus. Infect Control Hosp Epidem 2003;24(5):362-86.