Neonates/Paediatric & Adult Patients

 

General

  1. Baker CJ, ed.  Red Book atlas of pediatric infectious diseases.  Elk Grove Village, IL:  American Academy of Pediatrics; 2007.
  2. Bradley JS, Nelson JD.  2010-11 Nelson’s pocket book of pediatric antimicrobial therapy.  18th ed.  Elk Grove Village, IL:  American Academy of Pediatrics; 2010.
  3. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, eds.  The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2012. Sperryville, VA:  Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc. 2012.
  4. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, and Dolin R, eds.  Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles & practice of infectious diseases. 7th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone Inc. 2009.
  5. Product monographs.  Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties 2011.

Skin and Soft Tissue

  1. Aboltins CA, Hutchinson AF, Sinnappu RN, et al.  Oral versus parenteral antimicrobials for the treatment of cellulitis:  a randomized non-inferiority trial.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2015;70:581-6.
  2. Achong MR.  Soft tissue infections: boils, bites and bad bacteria.  Can J Diagn 1999;93-103.
  3. Bader MS, Twells L, Hawboldt J.  Risk factors of cellulitis treatment failure with once-daily intravenous cefazolin plus oral probenecid.  Southern Med J 2011;104:789-93.
  4. Bass JW.  Treatment of skin and skin structure infections.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992;11:152-5.
  5. Bernard P.  Management of common bacterial infections of the skin.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008;21:122-8.
  6. Bisno AL, Stevens DL.  Streptococcal infections of skin and soft tissues.  N Engl J Med 1996;334:240-5.
  7. Bjork R.  What’s causing your patient’s lower-extremity redness?  Wound Care Advisor 2013;2:16-19,28.
  8. Bowler P.  The anaerobic and aerobic microbiology of wounds: a review.  Wounds 1998;10:170-8.
  9. Brown G, Chamberlain R, Goulding J, et al.  Ceftriaxone versus cefazolin with probenecid for severe skin and soft tissue infections.  J Emerg Med 1996;14:547-51.
  10. Cox VC, Zed PJ.  Once-daily cefazolin and probenecid for skin and soft tissue infections.  Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:458-63.
  11. Dryden MS.  Complicated skin and soft tissue infection.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65 suppl 3:iii35-44.
  12. Eron LJ.  Cellulitis and soft-tissue infections.  Ann Intern Med 2009;Jan:ITC1-1-16.
  13. Failla DM, Parkey GA. Optimum outpatient therapy of skin & skin structure infections. Drugs 1994;48:172-8.
  14. Falagas ME, Vergidis PI.  Narrative review:  diseases that masquerade as infectious cellulitis.  Ann Intern Med 2005;142:47-55.
  15. Gabillot-Carre M, Roujeau JC.  Acute bacterial skin infections and cellulitis.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2007;20:118-23.
  16. Graham-Robinson NA. Skin infections & treating the surface - does it work? Pharm Practice 1992 (Jun): 23-9.
  17. Grayson LM, McDonald M, Gibson K, et al.  Once-daily intravenous cefazolin plus oral probenecid is equivalent to once-daily intravenous ceftriaxone plus oral placebo for the treatment of moderate-to-severe cellulitis in adults.  Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:1440-8.
  18. Halilovic J, Heintz BH, Brown J.  Risk factors for clinical failure in patients hospitalized with cellulitis and cutaneous abscess.  J Infection 2012;65:128-34.
  19. Hurwitz S.  Guide to skin diseases of infants.  Diagnosis 1985;103-14.
  20. Ki V, Rotstein C.  Bacterial skin and soft tissue infections in adults:  a review of their epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and site of care.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2008;19:173-84.
  21. Kilburn SA, Featherstone P, Higgins B, et al.  Interventions for cellulitis and erysipelas.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010, Issue 6.  Art. No.: CD004299.
  22. Klempner MS, Styrt B.  Prevention of recurrent staphylococcal skin infections with low-dose oral clindamycin therapy.  JAMA 1988;260:2682-5.
  23. Moon KT.  Which antibiotics are best for skin and soft tissue infections?  Am Fam Physician 2007;76:1034-8.
  24. Nahata MC, Durrell DE, Ginn-Pease ME, et al.  Pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of cefazolin in pediatric patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.  Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1991;16:49-52.
  25. Peterson D, McLeod S, Woolfrey K, et al.  Predictors of failure of empiric outpatient antibiotic therapy in emergency department patients with uncomplicated cellulitis.  Academic Emerg Med 2014;21:526-31.
  26. Phoenix G, Das S, Joshi M.  Diagnosis and management of cellulitis.  BMJ 2012;345:e4955.
  27. Piersimoni C, Scarparo C.  Extrapulmonary infections associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria in immunocompetent persons.  Emerg Infect Dis 2009;15:1351-8.
  28. Reagan DR, et al.  Elimination of coincident Staphylococcus aureus nasal and hand carriage with intranasal application of mupirocin calcium ointment.  Ann Intern Med 1991;114:101-6.
  29. Rice TL. Topical antibacterials. Hospital Pharmacy 1992;27:1099-1108.
  30. Robinson JL, Wenman WM.  Bacterial skin infections in children: what to look for and what to do.  Can J Diagnosis 1990;76-92.
  31. Schachner L, Press S.  Vesicular, bullous and pustular disorders in infancy and childhood. Pediatr Clin North Am 1983;30:609-29.
  32. Semel JD, Goldin H.  Association of athlete’s foot with cellulitis of the lower extremities: diagnostic value of bacterial cultures of ipsilateral interdigital space samples. Clin Infect Dis 1996;23:1162-4.
  33. Singer AJ, Talan DA.  Management of skin abscesses in the era of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  N Engl J Med 2014;370:1039-47.
  34. Spina SP, Dillon Jr EC.  Effect of chronic probenecid therapy on cefazolin serum concentrations.  Ann Pharmacother 2003;37:621-4.
  35. Stevens DL.  Streptococcal infections of skin and soft tissues.  N Engl J Med 1996;334:240-5.
  36. Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, et al.  Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections:  2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:e10-52.
  37. Strauss WG, et al.  Bacterial interference treatment of recurrent furunculosis.  JAMA 1969;208:861-3.
  38. Swartz MN.  Cellulitis. N Engl J Med 2004;350:904-12.
  39. Thomas KS, Crook AM, Nunn AJ, et al.  Penicillin to prevent recurrent leg cellulitis.  N Engl J Med 2013;368:1695-703.
  40. Tortoli E.  Clinical manifestations of nontuberculous mycobacteria infections.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2009;15:906-10.
  41. Wong MSW.  A lousy problem – revisiting the age-old concern of head lice.  Pharmacy Practice 2002:18;47-53.

   MRSA

  1. Barton M, Hawkes M, Moore D, et al.  Guidelines for the prevention and management of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus:  A perspective for Canadian health care practitioners.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2006;17 (suppl C):4C-24C.
  2. Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Disease Committee (Principal authors Joan L Robinson, Marina I Salvadori), Management of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin abscesses in children. Paediatr Child Health 2011;16:115-6.  www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus-aureus-skin-abscesses (Accessed September 13, 2012).
  3. Chen SF.  Staphylococcus aureus decolonization.  Ped Infect Dis J 2005;24:79-80.
  4. Conly JM, Johnston BL.  The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a community-acquired pathogen in Canada.  Can J Infect Dis Med Micro 2003;14:249-51.
  5. Conly JM, Stiver HG, Weiss KA, et al.  A retrospective analysis of practice patterns in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections at three Canadian tertiary care centres.  Can J Infect Dis 2003;14:315-21.
  6. David MZ, Daum RS.  Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus:  epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic.  Clin Microbiol Rev 2010;23:616-87.
  7. DeLeo FR, Otto M, Kreiswirth BN, et al.  Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  Lancet 2010;375:1557-68.
  8. Fung SK, Louie M, Simor AE.  Combined topical and oral antimicrobial therapy for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in hospitalized patients.  Can J Infect Dis 2002;13:287-92.
  9. Liu C, Bayer A, Cosgrove S, et al.  Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:1-38.
  10. Lucet JC, Regnier B.  Screening and decolonization:  does methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus hold lessons for methicillin-resistant S. aureus?  Clin Infect Dis 2010;51:585-90.
  11. Mulvey MR, MacDougall L, Cholin B, et al.  Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Canada.  Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:844-50.
  12. Nichol KA, Adam HJ, Roscoe DL, et al.  Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canada.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2013;68(suppl 1):i47-55.
  13. Simor AE, Loeb M.  The management of infection and colonization due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus:  a CIDS/CAMM position paper.  Can J Infect Dis 2004;15:39-48.
  14. Simor AE, Phillips E, McGeer A, et al.  Randomized controlled trial of chlorhexidine gluconate for washing, intranasal mupirocin, and rifampin and doxycycline versus no treatment for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:178-85.
  15. van Rijen M, Bonten M, Wenzel R, et al.  Mupirocin ointment for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections in nasal carriers.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008, Issue 4.  Art. No.: CD006216.
  16. Weber JT.  Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:S269-72.
  17. Wertheim HFL, Melles DC, Vos MC, et al.  The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections.  Lancet Infect Dis 2005;5:751-62.

 

   Impetigo

  1. Bowen AC, Tong SYC, Andrews RM.  Short-course oral co-trimoxazole versus intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin for impetigo in a highly endemic region:  an open-label, randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial.  Lancet 2014;384:2132-40.
  2. Koning S, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, Nouwen JL, et al.  Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice:  double blind randomised placebo controlled trial.  BMJ 2002;324:1-5.
  3. Koning S, Verhagen AP, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, et al.  Interventions for impetigo.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003, Issue 2.  Art. No.: CD003261.

   Vesicular Lesions

  1. Alrabiah FA, Sacks SL.  New antiherpesvirus agents:  their targets and therapeutic potential.  Drugs 1996;52:17-32.
  2. Amir J, Harel L, Smetana Z, et al.  Treatment of herpes simplex gingivostomatitis with aciclovir in children: a randomised double blind placebo controlled study.  Br Med J 1997;314:1800-3.
  3. Anon.  Drugs for non-HIV viral infections. Treatment Guidelines Med Let 2005;3(32):23-32.
  4. Boivin G, Jovey R, Elliott CT, et al.  Management and prevention of herpes zoster:  a Canadian perspective.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2010;21:45-52.
  5. Committee on Infectious Diseases.  The use of oral acyclovir in otherwise healthy children with varicella.  Pediatr 1993;91:674-6.
  6. Dworkin RH, Boon RJ, Griffin DRG, et al.  Postherpetic neuralgia: impact of famciclovir, age, rash severity, and acute pain in herpes zoster patients.  J Infect Dis 1998;178:S76-80.
  7. Dworkin RH, Johnson RW, Breuer J, et al.  Recommendations for the management of Herpes zoster.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:1-26.
  8. Hardy I, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, et al.  The incidence of zoster after immunization with live attenuated varicella vaccine.  A study in children with leukemia.  Varicella Vaccine Collaborative Study Group.  New Engl J Med 1991;325:1545-50.
  9. Heininger U, Seward JF.  Varicella.  Lancet 2006;368:1365-76.
  10. Klassen TP, Hartling L.  Acyclovir for treatng varicella in otherwise healthy children and adolescents.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005, Issue 4.  Art. No.: CD002980.
  11. Nikkels AF, Pierard GE. Recognition and treatment of shingles. Drugs 1994;48:528-48.
  12. Ormrod D, Goa K.  Valaciclovir: A review of its use in the management of herpes zoster.  Drugs 2000;59:1317-40.
  13. Perry CM, Wagstaff AJ.  Famciclovir: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in Herpesvirus infections. Drugs 1995;50:396-415.
  14. Schmader K.  Herpes zoster in older adults.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:1481-6.
  15. Spruance SL, Jones TM, Blatter MM, et al.  Oral valaciclovir for the treatment of herpes labialis:  two trials of early, high-dose, short-course therapy.  Abstract
  16. Spruance, SL, Nett R, Marbury T, et al.  Acyclovir cream for treatment of herpes simplex labialis:  results of two randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicenter clinical trials.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002:46;2238-43.
  17. Tyring SK, Beutner KR, Tucker BA, et al.  Antiviral therapy for herpes zoster:  randomized, controlled clinical trial of valacyclovir and famciclovir therapy in immunocompetent patients 50 years and older.  Arch Fam Med 2000;9:863-9.
  18. Valtrex® product monograph.  GlaxoSmithKline Inc.  May 7, 2003.
  19. Whitley RJ.  A 70 year-old woman with shingles.  JAMA 2009;302:73-80.
  20. Wilson JF.  Herpes zoster.  Ann Intern Med 2011;Mar:ITC3-1-16.

   Breast Abscess/Mastitis

  1. Bing AU, Loh SF, Morris T, et al.  Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections.  J Clin Microbiol 2015;53:3247-55.
  2. Bundred NJ, Dover MS, Coley S, et al.  Breast abscesses and cigarette smoking.  Br J Surg 1992;79:58-9.
  3. Dixon JM, Khan LR.  Treatment of breast infection.  BMJ 2011;342:d396.
  4. Dixon JM.  Breast infection.  BMJ 2013;347:f3291.
  5. Jahanfar S, Ng CJ, Teng CL.  Antibiotics for mastitis in breastfeeding women.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009, Issue 1.  Art. No.: CD005458.
  6. Mertz KR, Baddour LM, Bell JL, et al.  Breast cellulitis following breast conservation therapy: a novel complication of medical progress.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:481-6.
  7. Seng P, Bayle S, Alliez A, et al.  The microbial epidemiology of breast implant infections in a regional referral centre for plastic and reconstructive surgery in the south of France.  International J Infect Dis 2015;35:62-6.

   Bites

  1. Abrahamian FM, Goldstein EJC.  Microbiology of animal bite wound infections.  Clin Microbiol Rev 2011;24:231-46.
  2. Bowler PG, Duerden Bl, Armstrong DG.  Wound microbiology and associated approaches to wound management. Clin Micro Rev 2001;14:244-69.
  3. Bunzli WF, Wright DH, Hoang AD, et al.  Current management of human bites.  Pharmacotherapy 1998;18:227-34.
  4. Cummings P.  Antibiotics to prevent infection in patients with dog bite wounds:  a meta-analysis of randomized trials.  Ann Emerg Med 1994;23:535-40.
  5. Davies HD.  When your best friend bites:  a note on dog and cat bites.  Can J Infect Dis 2000;11:227-9.
  6. Failla DM, Parkey GA. Optimum outpatient therapy of skin & skin structure infections. Drugs 1994;48:172-8.
  7. Fleisher GR.  The management of bite wounds.  N Engl J Med 1999;340:138-40.
  8. Goldstein EJC. Bite wounds and infection. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:633-40.
  9. Goldstein EJC, Citron DM, Finegold SM.  Dog bite wounds and infection: a prospective clinical study.  Ann Emerg Med 1980;9:508-12.
  10. Goldstein EJC, Citron DM, Finegold SM.  Role of anaerobic bacteria in bite-wound infections.  Rev Infect Dis 1984;6:177-83.
  11. Goldstein EJC, Citron DM, Wield B, et al.  Bacteriology of human and animal bite wounds.  J Clin Microbiol 1978;8:667-72.
  12. Morgan M, Palmer J.  Dog bites.  BMJ 2007;334:413-7.
  13. Oehler R, Velez AP, Mizrachi M, et al.  Bite-related and septic syndromes caused by cats and dogs.  Lancet Infect Dis 2009;9:439-47.
  14. Stevens DL, Higbee JW, Oberhofer TR, et al.  Antibiotic susceptibilities of human isolates of Pasteurella multocida.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1979;16:322-4.
  15. Talan DA, Abrahamian FM, Moran GJ, et al. Clinical presentation and bacteriologic analysis of infected human bites in patients presenting to emergency departments. Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:1481-9.
  16. Talan DA, Citron DM, Abrahamian FM, et al.  Bacteriologic analysis of infected dog and cat bites.  N Engl J Med 1999;340:85-92.
  17. Taplitz RA.  Managing bite wounds. Currently recommended antibiotics for treatment and prophylaxis. Postgraduate Medicine 2004:116:49-59.
  18. Taylor GA. Management of human bite injuries of the hand. Can Med Assoc J 1985;133:191-2.
  19. Weber DJ, Hansen AR. Infections resulting from animal bites. Infect Dis Clin N Am 1991;5:663-80.

   Diabetic Foot

  1. Baglioni P, Malik M, Okosieme OE.  Acute Charcot foot.  BMJ 2012;344:e1397.
  2. Bamberger DM, Davis GP, Gerding DN. Osteomyelitis in the feet of diabetic patients: long-term results, prognostic factors, and the role of antimicrobial and     surgical therapy. Amer J Med 1987;83:653-60.
  3. Bowler PG, Duerden Bl, Armstrong DG.  Wound microbiology and associated approaches to wound management. Clin Micro Rev 2001;14:244-69.
  4. Caputo GM, Cavanagh PR, Ulbrecht JS, et al. Assessment and management of foot disease in patients with diabetes. N Engl J Med 1994;331:854-60.
  5. Cavanagh PR, Lipsky BA, Bradbury AW, et al.  Treatment for diabetic foot ulcers.  Lancet 2005;366:1725-35.
  6. Committee on Antimicrobial Agents, Fong IW. Management of diabetic foot infection: a position paper. Can J Infect Dis 1996;7:361-5.
  7. Gerding DN.  Foot infections in diabetic patients:  the role of anaerobes.  Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:283-8.
  8. Grayson ML, Gibbons GW, Habershaw GM, et al.  Use of ampicillin/sulbactam versus imipenem/cilastatin in the treatment of limb-threatening foot infections in diabetic patients.  Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:683-93.
  9. Grayson ML. Diabetic foot infections: antimicrobial therapy. Infect Dis Clin N 1995;9:146-61.
  10. Kertesz D, Chow AW.  Infected pressure and diabetic ulcers.  Clin Geriatr Med 1992; 8:835-52.
  11. Lipsky BA, Berendt AR, Cornia PB, et al.  2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections.  Clin Infect Dis 2012;54:132-73.
  12. Lipsky BA, Berendt AR, Deery HG, et al.  Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections.  Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:885-910.
  13. Powlson AS, Coll AP.  The treatment of diabetic foot infections.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65(suppl 3):iii3-9.
  14. Tan AI, Greenstein A, Jarrett SJ, et al.  Acute neuropathic joint disease.  Diabetes Care 2005;28:2962-4.
  15. Tan JS, Friedman NM, Hazelton-Miller C, et al.  Can aggressive treatment of diabetic foot infections reduce the need for above-ankle amputation?  Clin Infect Dis 1996;23:286-91.
  16. Wheat LJ, Allen SD, Henry M, et al. Diabetic foot infections: bacteriologic analysis. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:1935-40.

   Rapidly Progressive Skin & Soft Tissue

  1. Anaya DA, Dellinger EP.  Necrotizing soft-tissue infection:  diagnosis and management.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:705-10.
  2. Capital Health Regional Public Health.  Public Health follow-up:  invasive Group A Strep disease.  Communicable Disease Corner 1997;7:8.
  3. Chen JL, Fullerton KE, Flynn NM.  Necrotizing fasciitis associated with injection drug use.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:6-15.
  4. Communicable Disease Control, Alberta Health.  Alberta guidelines for management of contacts of cases of invasive Group A streptococcal disease, 1996.
  5. Darenberg J, Ihendyane N, Sjolin J, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin G therapy in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: a European randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:333-40.
  6. Demers B, Simor AE, Vellend H, et al. Severe invasive group A Streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada: 1987-1991. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:792-800.
  7. Frick S, Cerny A.  Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae after intramuscular injection of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs:  report of 2 cases and review.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:740-4.
  8. Gardam MA, Low DE, Saginur R, et al.  Group B streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in adults.  Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1704-8.
  9. Givner LB, Abramson JS, Wasilauskas B.  Apparent increase in the incidence of invasive group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal disease in children. J Pediatr 1991;118:341-6.
  10. Hasham S, Matteucci P, Stanley PRW, et al.  Necrotising fasciitis.  BMJ 2005;330:830-3.
  11. Kaul R, McGeer A, Norrby-Teglund A, et al.  Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome - a comparative observational study.  Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:800-7.
  12. Morris SF, Brennan M.  Necrotizing infections of the skin and soft tissue.  Can J CME 1996;Apr:115-27.
  13. Norrby-Teglund A, Basma H, Andersson J, et al.  Varying titers of neutralizing antibodies to streptococcal superantigens in different preparations of normal polyspecific immunoglobulin G: implications for therapeutic efficacy.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:631-8.
  14. Phan HH, Cocanour CS.  Necrotizing soft tissue infections in the intensive care unit.  Crit Care Med 2010;38(suppl.):S460-8.
  15. Stevens DL.  Rationale for the use of intravenous gamma globulin in the treatment of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:639-41.
  16. Stevens DL, Gibbons AE, Bergstrom R, et al.  The Eagle effect revisited:  efficacy of clindamycin, erythromycin and penicillin in the treatment of streptococcal myositis.  J Infect Dis 1988;158:23-8.
  17. Stevens DL.  Invasive group A Streptococcus infections. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:2-13
  18. The Streptococcal Study Group, Departments of Infectious Disease and Microbiology.  Protocol for the management of Group A Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, Mount Sinai Hospital.  Toronto, Ontario.
  19. The Working Group on Prevention of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections.  Prevention of invasive Group A streptococcal disease among household contacts of case-patients.  JAMA 1998;279:1206-10.
  20. Ustin JS, Malangoni MA.  Necrotizing soft-tissue infections.  Crit Care Med 2011;39:2156-62.
  21. Vinh, DC, Embil JM.  Rapidly progressive soft tissue infections.  Lancet Infect Dis 2005;5:501-13.

   Lice

  1. Canadian Pediatric Society.  Head lice infestations:  a clinical update.  Paediatr Child Health 2008;13:692-6.
  2. Boivin M, Dion C, Oleksyn C.  Managing head lice - in the age of lice resistance to neurotoxic products and new treatment modalities.  rxBriefCase 2012.

Bone & Joint

  1. Bachur R, Pagon Z.  Success of short-course parenteral antibiotic therapy for acute osteomyelitis of childhood.  Clin Pediatrics 2007;46:30-35.
  2. Baker DG, Schumacher HR. Acute monoarthritis. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1013-20.
  3. Berbari EF, Kanj SS, Kowalski TJ, et al.  2015 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of native vertebral osteomyelitis in adults.  Clin Iinfect Dis 2015;61:e26-46.
  4. Black J, Hunt TL, Godley PJ, et al.  Oral antimicrobial therapy for adults with osteomyelitis or septic arthritis.  J Infect Dis 1987;155:968-72.
  5. Chadwick PR, Davis N, Clayson AD, et al.  Enterococcal joint prosthesis infection.  Clin Microbiol Infect 1997;3:264-5.
  6. Cunha BA, Osteomyelitis in elderly patients.  Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:287-93.
  7. Dickie AS.  Current concepts in the management of infections in bones and joints.  Drugs 1986;32:458-75.
  8. Dirschl DR, Almekinders LC. Osteomyelitis:common causes and treatment recommendations. Drugs 1993;45:29-43.
  9. Espinosa CM, Davis MM, Gilsdorf JR.  Anaerobic osteomyelitis in children.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011;30:422-3.
  10. Feigin RD, Pickering LK, Anderson D, et al.  Clindamycin treatment of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children.  Pediatrics 1975;55:213-22.
  11. Fitzgerald RH, Cowan JDE. Puncture wounds of the foot. Orthop Clin North Am 1975;6:965-72.
  12. Fox L, Sprunt K.  Neonatal osteomyelitis.  Pediatrics 1978;62:535-42.
  13. Gardner GC, Weisman MH.  Pyarthrosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis:  a report of 13 cases and a review of the literature from the past 40 years.  Am J Med 1990;88:503-11.
  14. Gentry LD. Antibiotic therapy for osteomyelitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1990;4:485-99.
  15. Gentry LO, Rodriguez GG.  Oral ciprofloxacin compared with parenteral antibiotics in the treatment of osteomyelitis.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990;34:40-3.
  16. Gentry LO.  Oral antimicrobial therapy for osteomyelitis.  Ann Intern Med 1991;114:986-7.
  17. Gillespie WJ.  Prevention and management of infection after total joint replacement.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:1310-7.
  18. Goldenberg DL, Reed JI. Bacterial arthritis. N Engl J Med 1985;312:764-70.
  19. Henry SL, Galloway KP.  Local antibacterial therapy for the management of orthopaedic infections: pharmacokinetic considerations.  Clin Pharmacokinet 1995;29:36-45.
  20. Jacobs KF, McCarthy RE, Elser JM. Pseudomonas osteochondritic complicating puncture wounds of the foot in children: a 10-year evaluation. J  Infect Dis 1989;160:657-61.
  21. Jacobs RF, Adelman L, Sack CM, et al.  Management of Pseudomonas osteochondritis complicating puncture wounds of the foot.  Pediatrics 1982;69:432-5.
  22. Jacobs RF, McCarthy RE, Elser JM.  Pseudomonas osteochondritis complicating puncture wounds of the foot in children: a 10-year evaluation.  J Infect Dis 1989;160:657-61.
  23. Kanellakopoulou K, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ.  Carrier systems for the local delivery of antibiotics in bone infections.  Drugs 2000;59:1223-32.
  24. Kolyvas E, Ahronheim G, Marks MI, et al.  Oral antibiotic therapy of skeletal infections in children.  Pediatrics 1980;65:867-71.
  25. Kortekangas P.  Bacterial arthritis in the elderly: an overview.  Drugs & Aging 1999;14:165-71.
  26. La Saux N, Howard A, Barrowman N, et al.  Shorter courses of parenteral antibiotic therapy do not appear to influence response rates for children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis:  a systematic review.  BMC Infect Dis 2002;2:16.
  27. Landersdorfer CB, Bulitta JB, Kinzig M, et al.  Penetration of antibacterials into bone.  Clin Pharmacokinetics 2009;48:89-124.
  28. Lazzarini L, Lipsky BA, Mader JT.  Antibiotic treatment of osteomyelitis:  what have we learned from 30 years of clinical trials?  Int J Infect Dis 2005;9:127-38.
  29. Lew DP, Waldvogel FA. Osteomyelitis. N Engl J Med 1997;336:999-1007.
  30. Lipsky BA.  Osteomyelitis of the foot in diabetic patients.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:1318-26.
  31. Meehan AM, Osmon DR, Duffy MCT, et al.  Outcome of penicillin-susceptible streptococcal prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and retention of the prosthesis.  Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:845-9.
  32. Miller EH, Semian DW. Gram-negative osteomyelitis following puncture wounds of the foot. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 1975;57A:535-7.
  33. Minnefor AB, Olson MI, Carver DH. Pseudomonas osteomyelitis following puncture wounds of the foot. Pediatrics 1971;47:598-60.
  34. Nelson JD.  Options for outpatient management of serious infections.  Pediar Infect Dis J 1992;11:175-8.
  35. Nickerson EK, Sinha R.  Vertebral osteomyelitis in adults:  an update.  British Med Bulletin 2016;117:121-38.
  36. Norden CW, Bryant R, Palmer D, et al.  Chronic osteomyelitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus: controlled clinical trial of nafcillin therapy and nafcillin-rifampin therapy.  South Med J 1986;79:947-51.
  37. Park K-H, Cho O-H, Lee JH, et al. Optimal duration of antibiotic therapy in patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis at low risk and high risk of recurrence.  Clin Infect Dis 2016;62:1262-9.
  38. Peltola H, Unkila-Kallio L, Kallio MJT, and the Finnish Study Group.  Simplified treatment of acute staphylococcal osteomyelitis of childhood.  Pediatrics 1997;99:846-50.
  39. Perlroth J, Kuo M, Tan J, et al.  Adjunctive use of rifampin for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections.  Arch Intern Med 2008;168:805-19.
  40. Prober CG.  Current antibiotic therapy of community-acquired bacterial infections in hospitalized children:  bone and joint infections.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992;11:156-9.
  41. Proctor RA, Peters G.  Small colony variants in staphylococcal infections: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:419-23.
  42. Raz R, Miron D.  Oral ciprofloxacin for treatment of infection following nail puncture wounds of the foot.  Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:194-5.
  43. Ross JJ, Saltzman CL, Carling P, et al.  Pneumococcal septic arthritis:  review of 190 cases.  Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:319-27.
  44. Segreti J, Nelson JA, Trenholme GM.  Prolonged suppressive antibiotic therapy for infected orthopedic prostheses.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:711-3.
  45. Shafran SD, et al.  Care plans for native and prosthetic joint septic arthritis, and acute hematogenous and chronic osteomyelitis.  Can J Infect Dis 2000;11(suppl D):34D-40D.
  46. Shirtliff ME, Mader JT.  Acute septic arthritis.  Clin Microbiol Rev 2002;15:527-44.
  47. Smith JW, Piercy EA. Infectious arthritis. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20-225-31.
  48. Sperling JW, Cofield RH, Torchia ME, et al.  Infection after shoulder instability surgery.  Clin Ortho Related Research 2003;414:61-4.
  49. Stein A, Bataille JF, Drancourt M, et al.  Ambulatory treatment of multidrug-resistant staphylococcus infected orthopedic implants with high-dose oral co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998;42:3086-91.
  50. Stengel D, Bauwens K, Sehouli J, Ekkernkamp A, et al.  Systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic therapy for bone and joint infections.  Lancet Infect Dis 2001;1:175-88.
  51. Sugarman B.  Pressure sores and underlying bone infection.  Arch Intern Med 1987;147:553-5.
  52. Syrogiannopoulos GA, Nelson JD.  Duration of antimicrobial therapy for acute suppurative osteoarticular infections.  Lancet 1988;37-40.
  53. Widmer AF.  New developments in diagnosis and treatment of infection in orthopedic implants.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;33(suppl 2):S94-106.
  54. Weichert S, Sharland M, Clarke NMP, et al.  Acute haematogenous osteomyelitis in children:  is there any evidence for how long we should treat?  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008;21:258-62.
  55. Wininger DA, Fass RJ. Antibiotic-impregnated cement and beads for orthopedic infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996;40:2675-9.
  56. Wieland BW, Marcantoni JR, Bommarito KM, et al.  A retrospective comparison of ceftriaxone versus oxacillin for osteoarticular infections due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.  Clin Infect Dis 2012;54:585-90.
  57. Zimmerli W.  Vertebral osteomyelitis.  N Engl J Med 2010;362:1022-9.
  58. Zimmerli W, Trampuz A, Ochsner PE.  Prosthetic-joint infections.  N Engl J Med 2004;351:1645-54.

   Septic Arthritis/Bursitis

  1. Harwell JI, Fisher D.  Pediatric septic bursitis:  case report of retocalcaneal infection and review of the literature.  Clin Infect Dis 2001:32;102-4.
  2. Kherani, RB, Shojania K.  Septic arthritis in patients with pre-existing inflammatory arthritis.  Can Med Assoc J 2007:176;1605.
  3. Peltola H, Paakkonen M, Kallio P, et al.  Prospective, randomized trial of 10 days versus 30 days of antimicrobial treatment, including a short-term course of parenteral therapy, for childhood septic arthritis.  Clin Infect Dis 2009:48;1201-10.
  4. Perez C, Huttner A, Assal M, et al.  Infectious olecranon and patellar bursitis:  short-course adjuvant antibiotic therapy is not a risk factor for recurrence in adult hospitalized patients.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65:1008-14.
  5. Smith JW, Chalupa P, Hasan MS.  Infectious arthritis:  clinical features, laboratory findings and treatment.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2006:12;309-14.

   Prosthetic Joint Infections

  1. Barberan J.  Management of infections of osteoarticular prosthesis.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2006;12:93-101.
  2. Del Pozo JL, Patel R.  Infection associated with prosthetic joints.  N Engl J Med 2009;361:787-94.
  3. Douglas RO, Elie FB, Anthony RB, et al.  Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infection:  Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2013;56(1):e1-25.
  4. Gomez J, Canovas E, Banos V, et al.  Linezolid plus refampin as a salvage therapy in prosthetic joint infections treated without removing the implant.  Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2011:4308-10.
  5. Kanafani ZA, Sexton DJ, Pien BC, et al.  Postoperative joint infections due to Propionibacterium species: a case-control study.  Clin Infect Dis 2009;49:1083-5.
  6. Laffer RR, Graber P, Ochsner PE, et al.  Outcome of prosthetic knee-associated infection:  evaluation of 40 consecutive episodes at a single centre.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2006;12:433-9.
  7. Matthews P, Berendt A, McNally M, et al.  Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infection.  BMJ 2009;338:1773.
  8. Moran E, Byren I, Atkins BL.  The diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infections.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65:45-54.
  9. Osmon DR, Berbari EF, Berendt AR, et al.  Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infection:  clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2013;56:e1-25.
  10. Parvizi J, Zmistowski B, Berbari EF, et al.  New definition for periprosthetic joint infection:  from the workgroup of the musculoskeletal infection society.  Clinical Ortho and Related Research 2011.
  11. Qu X, Zhai Z, Wu C, et al.  Preoperative aspiration cuture for preoperative diagnosis of infection in total hip or knee arthroplasty.  J Clin Microbiol 2013;51:3830-4.
  12. Samuel JR, Gould FK.  Prosthetic joint infections:  single versus combination therapy.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65:18-23.
  13. Schafer P, Fink B, Sandow D, et al.  Prolonged bacterial culture to identify late periprosthetic joint infection:  a promising stategy.  Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:1403-9.
  14. Senneville E, Joulie D, Legout L, et al.  Outcome and predictors of treatment failure in total hip/knee prosthetic joint infections due to Staphylococcus aureus.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;53:334-40.
  15. Trampuz A, Widmer AF.  Infections associated with orthopedic implants.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2006;19:349-56.
  16. Vilchez F, Martinez-Pastor JC, Garcia-Ramiro S, et al.  Outcome and predictors of treatment failure in early post-surgical prosthetic joint infections due to Staphylococcus aureus treated with debridement.  Clin Microbial Infect 2011;17:439-44.

Respiratory

  1. Woodhead M, Blasi F, Ewig S, et al.  Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections - full version.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2011;17(suppl 6):E1-59.
  2. Woodhead M, Blasi F, Ewig S, et al.  Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections - summary.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2011;17(suppl 6):1-24.

   Pharyngitis

  1. Adam D, Scholz H, Helmerking M.  Short-course antibiotic treatment of 4782 culture-proven cases of group A Streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis and incidence of poststreptococcal sequelae.  J Infect Dis 2000;182:509-16.
  2. Bass JW, Person DA, Chan DS.  Twice-daily oral penicillin for treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis: less is best.  Pediatrics 2000;423-4.
  3. Bisno AL.  Are cephalosporins superior to penicilin for treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis?  Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1535-7.
  4. Bisno AL, Gerber MA, Gwaltney JM, et al.  Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis.  Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:113-25.
  5. Bisno AL, Peter GS, Kaplan EL.  Diagnosis of strep throat in adults:  are clinical criteria really good enough?  Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:126-9.
  6. Brink WR, Rammelkamp CH, Denny FW, et al.  Effect of penicillin and aureomycin on the natural course of streptococcal tonsillitis and pharyngitis. Am J Med 1951;10:300-8.
  7. Brook I.  ß-lactamase-producing bacteria in mixed infections.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2004;10:777-84.
  8. Casey JR, Pichichero ME.  Higher dosages of azithromycin are more effective in treatment of group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis.  Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:1748-55.
  9. Casey JR, Pichichero ME.  Meta-analysis of cephalosporins verus penicillin for treatment of group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in adults.  Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1526-34.
  10. Casey JR, Pichichero ME.  Meta-analysis of cephalosporin versus penicillin treatment of group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children.  Pediatrics 2004;113:866-82.
  11. Casey JR, Pichichero ME.  Metaanalysis of short course antibiotic treatment for group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis.  Ped Infect Dis J 2005;24:909-17.
  12. Catanzaro FJ, Stetson CA, Morris AJ, et al.  The role of the streptococcus in the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever. Am J Med 1954;17:749-56.
  13. Centor RM, Witherspoon JM, Dalton HP, et al. The diagnosis of strep throat in adults in the emergency room. Med Dec Making 1981;1:239-46.
  14. Choby BA.  Diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis.  Am Fam Physician 2009;79:383-90.
  15. Cimolai N, Elford RW, Bryan L, et al. Do the b-haemolytic non-group A Streptococci cause pharyngitis? Rev Infect Dis 1988;10:587-601.
  16. Clarridge JE.  The recognition and significance of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum.  Clin Microbiol Newsletter 1989;11:41-5.
  17. Cooper RJ, Hoffman JR, Bartlett JG, et al. Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute pharyngitis in adults:  background.  Ann Intern Med 2001;134:509-17.
  18. Davies HD, Low DE, Schwartz B, et al. Evaluation of short-course therapy with cefixime or rifampin for eradication of pharyngeally carried group A Streptococci. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21:1294-6.
  19. Del Mar CB, Glasziou PP, Spinks AB.  Antibiotics for sore throat.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev, Issue 3, 2004.
  20. DKML. Laboratory diagnosis and management of bacterial pharyngitis. 1996;1
  21. Ebell MH, Smith MA, Barry HC, et al.  Does this patient have strep throat?  JAMA 2000;284:2912-8.
  22. El Daher N, Hijazi S, Rawashdeh N, et al.  Immediate vs. delayed treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis with penicillin V. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991;10:126-30.
  23. Feder HM, Gerber MA, Randolph MF, et al.  Once-daily therapy for streptococcal pharyngitis with amoxicillin.  Pediatrics 1999;103:47-51.
  24. Fine AM, Nizet V, Mandl KD.  Large-scale validation of the Centor and McIsaac scores to predict group A streptococcal pharyngitis.  Arch Intern Med 2012;172:847-52.
  25. Gerber M, Spadaccini L, Wright L, et al.  Twice daily penicillin in the treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. Am J Dis Child 1985;139:1145-8.
  26. Gerber MA, Baltimore RS, Eaton CB, et al.  Prevention of rheumatic fever and diagnosis and treatment of acute streptococcal pharyngitis.  Circulation 2009;119:1541-51.
  27. Gerber MA, Randolph MF, Martin NJ, et al.  Community-wide outbreak of group G Streptococcal pharyngitis.  Pediatrics 1991;87:598-603.
  28. Gillespie SH.  Failure of penicillin in Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngeal infection.  Lancet 1998;352:1954-6.
  29. Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee.  Treatment of group A Streptococcal pharyngitis. Can J Infect Dis 1997;8:17-18.
  30. Jensen JH, Larsen SB. Treatment of recurrent acute tonsillitis with clindamycin: an alternative to tonsillectomy? Clin Otolaryngol 1991;16:498-500.
  31. Lan AJ, Colford Jr JM.  The impact of dosing frequency on the efficacy of 10-day penicillin or amoxicillin therapy for streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis: a meta-analysis.  Pediatrics 2000;105:e19.
  32. Kociolek LK, Shulman ST.  Pharyngitis.  Ann Intern Med 2012;ITC3:1-16.
  33. McIsaac WJ, White D, Tannenbaum D, et al.  A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat.  Can Med Assoc J 1998;158:75-83.
  34. Orrling A, Stjernquist-Desatnik A, Schalen C, et al.  Clindamycin in persisting streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis after penicillin treatment.  Scand J Infect Dis 1994;26:535-41.
  35. Parsons WD.  The diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. Can Fam Physician 1987;33:1445-8.
  36. Peter G.  Streptococcal pharyngitis: current therapy and criteria for evaluation of new agents. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:S218-23.
  37. Pichichero ME. Cephalosporins are superior to penicillin for treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis:is the difference worth it? Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993;12:268-74.
  38. Pichichero ME, Margolis PA.  A comparison of cephalosporins and penicillins in the treatment of group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis: a meta-analysis supporting the concept of microbial co-pathogenicity. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991;10:275-81.
  39. Schwartz B, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, et al.  Pharyngitis – principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents.  Pediatrics 1998;101:171-3.
  40. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al.  Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis:  2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:e86-102.
  41. Shulman ST, Gerber MA.  So what's wrong with penicillin for strep throat?  Pediatrics 2004;113:1816-9.
  42. Shulman ST, Gerber MA, Tanz RR, et al.  Streptococcal pharyngitis: the case for penicillin therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994;13:1-7.
  43. Snow S, Mottur-Pilson C, Cooper RJ, et al.  Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute pharyngitis in adults.  Ann Intern Med 2001;134:506-8.
  44. Tan JS.  Treatment recommendations for acute pharyngitis.  Curr Treatment Options Infect Dis 2003;5:143-50.
  45. Tanz RR, Poncher JR, Corydon KE, et al. Clindamycin treatment of chronic pharyngeal carriage of group A Streptococci. J Pediatr 1991;119:123-8.
  46. Tanz RR, Shulman ST, Barthel MJ, et al.  Penicillin plus rifampin eradicates pharyngeal carriage of group A streptococci.  J Pediatr 1985;106:876-80.
  47. Tanz RR, Shulman ST, Sroka PA, et al.  Lack of influence of beta-lactamase producing flora on recovery of group A streptococci after treatment of acute pharyngitis.  J Pediatr 1990;117:859-63.
  48. Wessels MR.  Streptococcal pharyngitis.  N Engl J Med 2011;364:648-55.

   Jugular Vein Septic Phlebitis

  1. Riordan T.  Human infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum (Necrobacillosis), with a focus on Lemierre's Syndrome.  Clin Micro Rev 2007;20:622-59.

   Pertussis (Whooping cough)

  1. Aoyama T, Sunakawa K, Iwata S, et al.  Efficacy of short-term treatment of pertussis with clarithromycin and azithromycin.  J Pediatr 1996;129:761-4
  2. Birkebaek NH, Kristiansen M, Seefeldt T, et al.  Bordetella pertussis and chronic cough in adults.  Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:1239-42.
  3. Capital Health Regional Public Health.  Pertussis.  Communicable Disease Corner 1998;2:1-2.
  4. Health Protection Agency guidelines for the public health management of pertussis 2012.
  5. Hewlett EL, Edwards KM.  Pertussis – not just for kids.  N Engl J Med 2005;352:1215-22.
  6. Mihaljevic F.  Azithromycin in the treatment of pertussis in children:  a pilot study.  ICMAS Abstract 1996; Jan 24-27.
  7. Parkins MD, McNeil SA, Laupland KB.  Routine immunization of adults in Canada:  Review of the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and current recommendations for primary prevention.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2009;20:e81-90.
  8. Senzilet LD, Halperin SA, Spika JS, et al.  Pertussis is a frequent cause of prolonged cough illness in adults and adolescents.  Clin Infect Dis 2001:32;1691-7.
  9. Singh M, Lingappan K.  Whooping cough - the current scene.  Chest 2006;130:1547-53.
  10. Tozzi AE, Celentano LP, Ciofi degli Atti, ML, et al.  Diagnosis and management of pertussis.  CMAJ 2005;172:509-15.
  11. Wirsing von Konig CH.  Use of antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of pertussis.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24:S66-8.

   Croup

  1. Alberta Medical Association.  Guideline for the diagnosis and management of croup.  Edmonton (AB):  Toward Optimized Practice;2008.  Available from:  http://www.topalbertadoctors.org/uploads/croup_guideline.pdf
  2. Cherry JD.  Croup.  N Engl J Med 2008;358:384-91.

   Otitis Media

  1. AHRQ.  Management of acute otitis media.  Summary, Evidence report/technology assessment:  number 15, June 2000.  Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research (AHRQ), Rockville, MD.  http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/otitisum.htm
  2. American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and American Academy of Pediatrics.  Otitis media with effusion.  Pediatrics 2004;113:1412-29.
  3. American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians.  Clinical practice guideline.  Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media.  Pediatrics 2004;113:1451-65.
  4. Anon.  Drugs for treatment of acute otitis media in children.  Med Lett Drugs Ther 1994;36:19-21.
  5. Arrieta A, Arguedas A, Fernandez P, et al.  High-dose azithromycin versus high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanate for treatment of children with recurrent or persistent acute otitis media.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47:3179-86.
  6. Arrieta A, Singh J.  Management of recurrent and persistent acute otitis media:  new options with familiar antibiotics.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23:S115-24.
  7. Boucher FD.  The new macrolide antibiotics: use them carefully.  Paediatr Child Health 1997;2:385-6.
  8. Casselbrant ML, Kaleida PH, Rockette HE, et al.  Efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and of tympanostomy tube insertion for prevention of recurrent acute otitis media:  results of a randomized clinical trial.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992;11:278-86.
  9. Coker TR, Chan LS, Newberry SJ, et al.  Diagnosis, microbial epidemiology, and antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children.  JAMA 2010;304:2161-9.
  10. Courter JD, Baker WL, Nowak KS, et al.  Increased clinical failures when treating acute otitis media with macrolides:  a meta-analysis.  Ann Pharmacother 2010;44:471-8.
  11. Craig WA, Andes D.  Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics in otitis media.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996;15:944-8.
  12. Dagan R, Abramson O, Leibovitz E, et al.  Impaired bacteriologic response to oral cephalosporins in acute otitis media caused by pneumococci with intermediate resistance to penicillin.  Ped Infect Dis J 1996;15:980-5.
  13. Dagan R, et al.  Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanate vs azithromycin in acute otitis media. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19:95-104.
  14. Delage G, Dery P, Gold R, et al.  Consensus recommendations for the management of otitis media.  Can J Diagn 1989;6:67-76.
  15. Doern GV, Brueggemann A, Holley HP, et al. Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from outpatients in the United States during the winter months of 1994 to 1995: results of a 30-center national surveillance study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996;40:1208-13.
  16. Dowell SF, Butler JC, Giebink GS, et al.  Acute otitis media: management and surveillance in an era of pneumococcal resistance – a report from the Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999;18:1-9.
  17. Dowell SF, Marcy MS, Phillips WR, et al.  Otitis media - principles of judicious use of antimicrobial agents.  Pediatrics 1998;101:165-71.
  18. Forgie S, Zhanel G, Robinson J.  Management of acute otitis media.  Paediatr Child Health 2009;14:ID 2009-01.
  19. Froom J, Culpepper L, DeMelker RA, et al.  Antimicrobials for acute otitis media?  A review from the International Primary Care Network.  Brit Med J 1997;315:98-102.
  20. Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB, Sanders SL, et al.  Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children (Cochrane Review).  In:  The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2004. Chichester, UK:  John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  21. Green SM, Rothrock SG.  Single-dose intramuscular ceftriaxone for acute otitis media in children.  Pediatrics 1993;91:23-30.
  22. Harrison CJ.  Using antibiotic concentrations in middle ear fluid to predict potential clinical efficacy.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997;16:S12-6.
  23. Hedrick JA, Sher LD, Schwartz RH, et al.  Cefprozil versus high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate in children with acute otitis media.  Clin Therapeutics 2001;23:193-204.
  24. Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, et al.  Shortened antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media in young children.  N Engl J Med 2016;375:2446-56.
  25. Hoberman A, Paradise JL, Rockette HE, et al.  Treatment of acute otitis media in children under 2 years of age.  N Engl J Med 2011;364:105-15.
  26. Kenna MA.  Otitis media and the new guidelines.  J Otolaryngology 2005;34(suppl 1):S24-32.
  27. Klein JO.  Is acute otitis media a treatable disease?  N Engl J Med 2011;364:168-9.
  28. Klein JO.  Microbiologic efficacy of antibacterial drugs for acute otitis media.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998;12:973-5.
  29. Le Saux N, Gaboury I, Baird M, et al.  A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled noninferiority trial of amoxicillin for clinically diagnosed acute otitis media in children 6 months to 5 years of age.  CMAJ 2005;172:335-41.
  30. Leiberman A, Leibovitz E, Piglansky L, et al. Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for treatment of acute otitis media. Ped Infect Dis J 2001;20:260-4.
  31. Leibovitz E, et al.  Bacteriologic efficacy of a three-day intramuscular ceftriaxone regimen in nonresponsive acute otitis media.  Ped Infect Dis J 1998;17:1126-31.
  32. Lieberthal AS, Carroll AE, Chonmaitree T, et al.  The diagnosis and management of acute otitis media.  Pediatrics 2013;131:e964–e99.
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  34. Little P, Gould C, Williamson I, et al.  Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of two prescribing strategies for childhood acute otitis media.  BMJ 2001;322:336-42.
  35. Mandel EM, Casselbrant ML.  Recent developments in the treatment of otitis media with effusion.  Drugs 2006;66:1565-76.
  36. Marchisio P, Principi N, Sala E, et al.  Comparative study of once-weekly azithromycin and once-daily amoxicillin treatments in prevention of recurrent acute otitis media in children.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996;40:2732-6.
  37. McIsaac WJ, Coyte PC, Croxford R, et al.  Otolaryngologists’ perceptions of the indications for tympanostomy tube insertion in children.  CMAJ 2000;162:1285-8.
  38. Paradise JL, Feldman HM, Campbell TF, et al.  Tympanostomy tubes and developmental outcomes at 9 to 11 years of age.  N Engl J Med 2007;356:248-61.
  39. Schloss MD.  Otitis media: to treat or not to treat?  Can Respir J 1999;6:51-3A.
  40. Simor AE, Louie M, The Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network, and Low DE. Canadian national survey of prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1996;40:2190-3.
  41. Spiro DM, Arnold DH.  The concept and practice of a wait-and-see approach to acute otitis media.  Curr Opin Peds 2008;20:72-8.
  42. Tahtinen PA, Laine MK, Huovinen P, et al.  A placebo-controlled trial of antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media.  N Engl J Med 2011;364:116-26.
  43. Trujillo M, Correa N, Olsen K, et al.  Cefprozil concentrations in middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2000;19:268-70.
  44. Uhari M, Mantysaari K, Niemela M.  A meta-analytic review of the risk factors for acute otitis media.  Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:1079-83.
  45. Vouloumanou EK, Karageorgopoulos DE, Kazantzi MS, et al.  Antibiotics versus placebo or watchful waiting for acute otitis media:  a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2009;64:16-24.
  46. Wall GM, Stroman DW, Roland PS, et al.  Ciprofloxacin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% sterile otic suspension for the topical treatment of ear infections.  Ped Infect Dis J 2009;28:141-4.

   Otitis Externa

  1. Dohar JE.  Evolution of management approaches for otitis externa.  Ped Infect Dis J 2003;22:299-308.
  2. Wooltorton E.  Ototoxic effects from gentamicin ear drops.  Can Med Assoc J 2002;167:56.

   Sinusitis

  1. Ahovuo-Saloranta A, Borisenko OV, Kovanen N, et al.  Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008:2:CD000243.
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   Parapharyngeal space infections

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   Acute Cervical Adenitis

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   Bronchitis

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   Bronchiolitis

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   Pneumocystis Pneumonia

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   Pneumonia

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  73. Troy CJ, Peeling RW, Ellis AG, et al.  Chlamydia pneumoniae as a new source of infectious outbreaks in nursing homes. JAMA 1997;277:1214-18.
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   Aspiration Pneumonia

  1. Bartlett JG, Gorbach SL. Treatment of aspiration pneumonia and primary lung abscess.  JAMA 1975;234:935-7.
  2. Finegold SM. Aspiration pneumonia. Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:S737-42.
  3. Marik PE. Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2001;344:665-71.

   Nosocomial  Pneumonia

  1. Bartlett JG, O’Keefe P, Tally FP, et al.  Bacteriology of hospital-acquired pneumonia.  Arch Intern Med 1986;146:868-71.
  2. Burgess DS.  Use of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to optimize antimicrobial treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.  Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:S99-104.
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  8. Haque NZ, Zuniga LC, Peyrani P, et al.  Relationship of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration to mortality in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, or health-care-associated pneumonia.  Chest 2010 138:1356-62.
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  19. Unertl KE, Lenhart FP, Forst H, et al. Systemic antibiotic treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Intensive Care Med 1992;18:S28-34.
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  21. Wunderink RG, Niederman MS, Kollef MH, et al.  Linezolid in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial pneumonia:  a randomized, controlled study.  Clin Infect Dis 2012

   Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

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  3. Chastre J, Wolff M, Fagon JY, et al.  Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults.  A randomized trial.  JAMA 2003;290:2588-98.
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  8. Morehead RS, Pinto SJ.  Ventilator-associated pneumonia.  Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1926-36.
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  10. Muscedere J, Dodek P, Keenan S, et al.  Comprehensive evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for ventilator-associated pneumonia:  prevention.  J Crit Care 2008:23;126-37.
  11. Principi N, Esposito S.  Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in pediatric intensive care units.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007:26;841-44.

   Cystic fibrosis

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  2. Coulthard KP, Peckham DG, Conway SP, et al.  Therapeutic drug monitoring of once daily tobramycin in cystic fibrosis - caution with trough concentrations.  J Cystic Fibrosis 2007;6:125-30.
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   Influenza

  1. Anon.  Antiviral agents for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza.  MMWR 2011:60.
  2. Anon.  Antiviral drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.  Med Lett Drugs Ther 2005;47:93-5.
  3. Anon.  Policy statemenet - recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2010-2011.  Am Ac Peds.
  4. Aoki FY, Allen DU, Stiver HG, et al.  The use of antiviral drugs for influenza:  guidance for practitioners, 2010-11.
  5. Jefferson T, Jones M, Doshi P, et al.  Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults:  systematic review and meta-analysis.  BMJ 2009:339;1-8.
  6. Smith JR, Ariano RE, Toovey S.  The use of antiviral agents for the management of severe influenza.  Crit Care Med 2010:38;43-51. 
  7. Uyeki TM, Bernstein HH, Bradley JS, et al.  Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America:  2018 update on diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management of seasonal influenza.  Clin Infect Dis 2019;68:1-47.

   Lung abscess

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  4. Gadkowski LB, Stout JE.  Cavitary pulmonary disease.  Clin Microb Rev 2008:21;305-33.
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  6. Levison ME, Mangura CT, Lorber B, et al. Clindamycin compared with penicillin for the treatment of anaerobic lung abscess. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:466-71.
  7. Marina M, Strong CA, Civen R, et al.  Bacteriology of anaerobic pleuropulmonary infections:  preliminary report.  Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:256-62.
  8. Perlino CA. Metronidazole vs clindamycin treatment of anaerobic pulmonary infection: failure of metronidazole therapy. Arch Intern Med 1981;141:1424-7.
  9. Yazbeck MF, Dahdel M, Kalra A, et al.  Lung abscess:  update on microbiology and management.  Am J Therapeut 2012.

   Empyema

  1. Bryant RE, Salmon CJ. Pleural empyema. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:747-64.
  2. Heffner J.  Multicenter trials of treatment for empyema – after all these years.  New Engl J Med 2005;352:926-28.
  3. Koegelenberg CFN, Diacon AH, Bolliger CT.  Parapneumonic pleural effusion and empyema.  Respiration 2008:75;241-50.
  4. Maskell NA, Davies CWH, Nunn AJ, et al.  U.K. controlled trial of intrapleural streptokinase for pleural infection.  N Engl J Med 2005;352:865-74.
  5. Misthos P, Sepsas E, Konstantinou M, et al.  Early use of intrapleural fibrinolytics in the management of postpneumonic empyema.  A prospective study.  Europ J Cardio-Thor Surg 2005;28:599-603.
  6. Rahman NM, Chapman SJ, Davies RJO.  The approach to the patient with a parapneumonic effusion.  Clin Chest Med 2006:27;253-66.
  7. Sahn SA.  Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions and empyema.  Clin Infect Dis 2007:45;1480-6.
  8. Schiza S, Siafakas NM.  Clinical presentation and management of empyema, lung abscess and pleural effusion.  Curr Opin Pulm Med 2006:12;205-12.

   Tuberculosis

  1. Anon.  Active tuberculosis:  diagnosis and management guideline.
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  3. American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America:  Treatment of tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:603-62. Reprinted in: Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 2003;52(No. RR-11):1-77. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/rr/rr5211.pdf
  4. Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) of the Canadian Lung Association (CLA) and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC).  Canadian Tuberculosis Standards, 7th Edition, 2013. http://www.respiratoryguidelines.ca/tb-standards-2013
  5. Dooley KE, Golub J, Goes FS, et al.  Empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with fluoroquinolones, and delays in the treatment of tuberculosis.  Clin Infect Dis 2002:34:1607-12.
  6. Horsburgh Jr CR, Feldman S, Ridzon R.  Practice guidelines for the treatment of tuberculosis.  Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31: 633-9
  7. Long R, Ellis E.  Introducing the sixth edition of the Canadian Tuberculosis Standards.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2007:18;283.
  8. Small PM, Fujiwara PI.  Management of tuberculosis in the United States.  N Engl J Med 2001;345:189-200.
  9. Treatment of tuberculosis.  National Guideline Clearinghouse 2004.

 

Gastrointestinal

 

   Gastroenteritis

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  2. Abbott SL, Janda JM.  Bacterial gastroenteritis II:  pathogenesis and laboratory identification.  Clin Microbiol Newslett 1992;14:25-8.
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  4. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya MK, Dutta D, et al.  Single-dose ciprofloxacin for shigellosis in adults.
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  6. Chinh NT, Parry CM, Thi Ly N, et al.  A randomized controlled comparison of azithromycin and ofloxacin for treatment of multidrug-resistant or nalidixic acid-resistant enteric fever.   Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:1855-9.
  7. Dryden MS, Gabb RJE, Wright SK. Empirical treatment of severe acute community-acquired gastroenteritis with ciprofloxacin. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:1019-25.
  8. Dryden MS, Keyworlth N, Gabb R, et al.  Asymptomatic foodhandlers as the source of nosocomial salmonellosis.  J Hosp Infect 1994;28:195-208.
  9. DuPont HL.  Bacterial diarrhea.  N Engl J Med 2009;361:1560-9.
  10. Galanis E.  Campylobacter and bacterial gastroenteritis.  CMAJ 2007;177:570-1.
  11. Gallagher JC, Du JK, Rose C.  Severe pseudomembranous colitis after moxifloxacin use:  a case series.  Ann Pharmacother 2009:43;123-8.
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  13. Guerrant RL, Bobak DA. Bacterial and protozoal gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med 1991;325:327-40.
  14. Guerrant RL, Van Gilder T, Steiner TS, et al.  Practice guidelines for the management of infectious diarrhea.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:331-351.
  15. Khan WA, Saha D, Rahman A, et al.  Comparison of single-dose azithromycin and 12-dose, 3-day erythromycin for childhood cholera:  a randomised, double-blind trial.  Lancet 2002;360:1722-7.
  16. Pennington H.  Escherichia coli O157.  Lancet 2010;376:1428-35.
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  18. Wong CS, Jelacic S, Habeeb RL, et al.  The risk of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 infections.  N Engl J Med 2000;342:1930-6.

   Travellers’ diarrhea

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  3. Adachi JA, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, DuPont HL, et al.  Empirical antimicrobial therapy for traveler's diarrhea.  Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:1079-83.
  4. CATMAT.  Statement on travellers’ diarrhea.  Can Commun Dis Rep 1994;20-17:149-56.
  5. Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT). Statement on travellers’ diarrhea.  Canada Communicable Disease Report 2001;27(ACS-3).
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  7. DuPont HL.  Therapy for and prevention of traveler's diarrhea.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:S78-84.
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  9. Ericsson CD, DuPont HL. Traveler’s diarrhea: approaches to prevention and treatment. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:616-26.
  10. Hill DR, Beeching NJ.  Travelers' diarrhea.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2010;23:481-7.
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  12. McCarthy AE, Mileno MD.  Prevention and treatment of travel-related infections in compromised hosts.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2006;19:450-5.
  13. Okhuysen PC.  Current concepts in travelers' diarrhea:  epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance and treatment.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2005;18:522-6.
  14. Wolfe MS.  Protection of travelers.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:177-86.

   Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)

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  2. Anand A, Bashey B, Mir T, et al.  Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcome of Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea.  Am J Gastroenterol 1994;89:519-23.
  3. Apisarnthanarak A, Razavi B, Mundy LM.  Adjunctive intracolonic vancomycin for severe Clostridium difficile colitis:  case series and review of the literature.  Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:690-6.
  4. Bakken JS, Borody T, Brandt LJ, et al.  Treating clostridium difficile infection with fecal microbiota transplantation.  Clin Gastro and Hep 2011:9;1044-9.
  5. Bartlett JG.  Antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  N Engl J Med 2002;346:334-9.
  6. Bauer, MP, Kuijper EJ, van Dissel JT.  European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID):  treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).  Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009;15:1067-79.
  7. Bryant K, McDonald LC.  Clostridium difficile infections in children.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009;28:145-6.
  8. Buggy BP, Fekety R, Silva J Jr.  Therapy of relapsing Clostridium difficile – associated diarrhea and colitis with the combination of vancomycin and rifampin.  J Clin Gastroenterol 1987;9:155-9.
  9. Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al.  Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults:  2010 update by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA).  Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31:431-55.
  10. Cunningham R, Dale B, Undy B, et al.  Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile diarrhea.  J Hospital Infection 2003;54:243-5.
  11. Dalton BR, Lye-MacCannell T, Henderson EA, et al.  Proton pump inhibitors increase significantly the risk of Clostridium difficile infection in a low-endemicity, non-outbreak hospital setting.  Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008;29:626-34.
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  13. Dial S, Alrasadi K, Manoukian C, et al.  Risk of Clostridium difficile diarrhea among hospital inpatients prescribed proton pump inhibitors:  cohort and case-control studies.  CMAJ 2004;171:33-8.
  14. Dial S, Delaney JAC, Barkun AN, et al.  Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquiredClostridium difficile disease.  JAMA 2005;294:2989-95.
  15. Dial S, Kezouh A, Dascal A, et al.  Patterns of antibiotic use and risk of hospital admission because of Clostridium difficile infection.  CMAJ 2008;179:767-72.
  16. Do AN, Fridkin SK, Yechouron A, et al.  Risk factors for early recurrent Clostridium difficile – associated diarrhea.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:954-9.
  17. Drug Safety.  Proton pump inhibitors (PPis) - drug safety communication:  Clostridum difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) can be associated with stomach acid drugs.  2012.
  18. Fedorko DP.  Controversies in Clostridium difficile testing.  Clinical Microbiol Newsletter 2002;24:76-9.
  19. Fekety R.  Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis.  Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:739-50.
  20. Gerding DN, Johnson S, Peterson LR, et al.  Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis.  Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16;459-77.
  21. Gough E, Shaikh H, Manges AR.  Systematic review of intestinal microbiota transplantaiton (fecal bacteriotherapy) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.  Clin Infect Dis 2011:53;994-1002.
  22. Health Canada.  Proton pump inhibitors (antacids):  possible risk of Costridium difficile-associated diarrhea.  2012.
  23. Hogenauer C, Hammer HF, Krejs GJ, et al.  Mechanisms and management of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:702-10.
  24. Hurley, BW, Nguyen CC.  The spectrum of pseudomembranous enterocolitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2177-84.
  25. Johnson S, Gerding DN.  Clostridium difficile – associated diarrhea.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:1027-36.
  26. Kamboj M, Khosa P, Kaltsas A, et al.  Relapse versus reinfection:surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;53:1003-6.
  27. Kelly CP, LaMont JT.  Clostridium difficile - more difficult than ever.  N Engl J Med 2008;359:1932-40.
  28. Knoop FC, Owens M, Crocker IC.  Clostridium difficile: clinical disease and diagnosis.  Clin Microbiol Rev 1993;6:251-65.
  29. Letter to the Editor.  Control of clostridium diffficile-associated diarrhea by antibiotic stewardship in a small community hospital.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2012:23
  30. Linsky A, Gupta K, Lawler EV, et al.  Proton pump inhibitors and risk for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.  Arch Intern Med 2010;170:772-8.
  31. Louie TJ, Meddings J.  Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals:  risk factors and responses.  CMAJ 2004:171:45-6.
  32. Malnick SDH, Zimhony O.  Treatment of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea.  Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:1767-75.
  33. Mylonakis E, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB.  Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:525-33.
  34. Owens RC Jr., Donskey CJ, Gaynes RP, et al.  Antimicrobial-associated risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection.  Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:S19-31.
  35. Pasic M, Jost R, Carrel T, et al.  Intracolonic vancomycin for pseudomembranous colitis.  N Engl J Med 1993;329:583.
  36. Pepin J, Saheb N, Coulombe MA, et al.  Emergence of fluoroquinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile – associated diarrhea:  a cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec.  Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:1254-60.
  37. Pothoulakis C, Castagliuolo I, Kelly CP, et al.  Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea and colitis:  pathogenesis and therapy.  Internat J Antimicrob Agents 1993;3:17-32.
  38. Poutanen SM, Simor AE. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults. CMAJ 2004:171:51-8.
  39. Reinke CM.  ASHP therapeutic position statement on the preferential use of metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease.  Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1998;55:1407-11.
  40. Riley TV, Cooper M, Bell B, et al.  Community-acquired Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea.  Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:263-5.
  41. Stevens V, Dumyati G, Fine LS, et al.  Cumulative antibiotic exposures over time and the risk of Clostridium difficile infection.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;53:42-8.
  42. Rokas KEE, Johnson JW, Beardsley JR, et al.  The addition of intravenous metronidazole to oral vancomycin is associated with improved mortality in critically ill patients with Clostridium difficile infection.  Clin Infect Dis 2015;61:934-41.
  43. Trexler Hessen M.  Clostridium difficile infection.  Ann Intern Med 2010;Oct:ITC4-1-16.
  44. Wenisch C, Parschalk B, Hasenhundl M, et al.  Comparison of vancomycin, teicoplanin, metronidazole, and fusidic acid for the treatment of Clostridium difficile – associated diarrhea.  Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:813-8.
  45. Wenisch JM, Schmid D, Kuo HW.  Prospective observational study comparing three different treatment regimes in patients with clostridium difficile infection.  Antimicrob Agents & Chemother 2012:1974-8.
  46. Woelfel JA.  Proton pump inhibitors associated with increased risk of Clostridium difficile diarrhea.  Pharmacist’s Letter 2004;20:200804.
  47. Zar FA, Bakkanagari SR, Moorthi KMLST, et al.  A comparison of vancomycin and metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea, stratified by disease severity.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:302-7.

   Necrotizing Enterocolitis

  1. Lin Pw, Stoll BJ.  Necrotising enterocolitis.  Lancet 2006;368:1271-83.
  2. Neu J, Walker WA.  Necrotizing enterocolitis.  N Engl J Med 2011;364:255-64.

   H. pylori

  1. Alberta Medical Association.  Guideline for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.  Jul 2000.  Revised Jan 2005.
  2. Bardhan KD, Dallaire C, Eisold H, et al.  Ranitidine bismuth citrate with clarithromycin for the treatment of duodenal ulcer.  Gut 1997;41:181-6.
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  4. Bonagura AF, Dabezies MA. Helicobacter pylori infection. Postgrad Med 1996;100:115-29.
  5. Chey WD, Wong BCY.  American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection.  Am J Gastroenterol 2007;102:1808-25.
  6. Fallone CA, Chiba N, van Zanten SV, et al.  The Toronto consensus for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.  Gastroenterology 2016;151:51-69.
  7. Fischbach L, Evans EL.  Meta-analysis:  the effect of antibiotic resistance status on the efficacy of triple and quadruple first-line therapies for Helicobacter pylori.  Aliment PharmacolTher 2007;26:343-57.
  8. Fuccio L, Laterza L, Zagari RM, et al.  Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.  BMJ 2008;337:746-7.
  9. Fuccio L, Minardi ME, Zagari RM, et al.  Meta-analysis:  duration of first-line proton-pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication.  Ann Intern Med 2007;147:553-62.
  10. Gatta L, Vakil N, Leandro G, et al. Sequential therapy or triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults and children. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:3069-79.
  11. Gatta L, Vakil N, Vaira D, et al. Global eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis of sequential therapy. BMJ 2013;347:f4587.
  12. Graham DY, Fischbach L.  Helicobacter pylori treatment in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance.  Gut 2010;59:1143-53.
  13. Graham DY, Lew GM, Evans DG, et al.  Effect of triple therapy (antibiotics plus bismuth) and duodenal ulcer healing: a randomized controlled trial.  Ann Intern Med 1991;115:266-9.
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  22. NIH.  Helicobacter pylori in peptic ulcer disease.  JAMA 1994;272:65-9.
  23. Passaro DJ, Chosy EJ, Parsonnet J.  Helicobacter pylori:  consensus and controversy.  Clin Infect Dis 2002:35;298-304.
  24. Pinchbeck et al. Can Assoc Gastroenterol 2012. (abstract) a145.
  25. Shah R.  Dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori.  BMJ 2007;334;41-3.
  26. Spee LAA, Madderom MB, Pijpers M, et al.  Association between Helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal symptoms in children.  Pediatrics 2010;125:e651-69.
  27. Sung JJY, Chung SCS, Ling TKW, et al. Antibacterial treatment of gastric ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori. N Engl J Med 1995;332:139-42.
  28. Toward Optimized Practice (TOP) Working Group for H. pylori.  2016 June.  Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori:  clinical practice guideline.  Edmonton, AB:  Toward Optimized Practice,  Available from http://www.topalbertadoctors.org
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  30. Veldhuyzen van Zanten SJO, Bradette M, Chiba N, et al. Evidence-based recommendations for short- and long-term management of uninvestigated dyspepsia in primary care:  an update of the Canadian Dyspepsia Working Group (CanDys) clinical management tool.  Can J Gastroenterol 2005;19:285-303
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   Cholecystitis/Cholangitis

  1. Anon.  Antibiotics for cholangitis.  Lancet 1989.
  2. Strasberg SM.  Acute calculous cholecystitis.  N Engl J Med 2008;358:2804-11.
  3. van den Hazel SJ, Speelman P, Tytgat GNJ, et al.  Role of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of acute and recurrent cholangitis. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19:279-86.
  4. Westphal JF, Brogard JM.  Bilary tract infections.  A guide to drug treatment.  Drugs 1999;57:81-91.

   Diverticulitis

  1. Chabok A, Pahlman L, Hjern F, et al.  Randomized clinical trial of antibiotics in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis.  British J Surg 2012;99:532-9.
  2. de Korte N, Unlu C, Boermeester MA, et al.  Use of antibiotics in uncomplicated diverticulitis.  British J Surg 2011;98:761-7.
  3. Ferzoco LB, Raptopoulos V, Silen W.  Acute diverticulitis.  N Engl J Med 1998;338:1521-6.
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  5. Jacobs DO.  Diverticulitis.  N Engl J Med 2007;357:2057-66.

   Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

  1. Bhuva M, Ganger D, Jensen D.  Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: an update on evaluation, management, and prevention. Am J Med 1994;97:169-75.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Ceftriaxone-associated biliary complications of treatment of suspected disseminated Lyme disease - New Jersey, 1990-1992. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 1993;42:39-42.
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  4. Frazee LA, Marinos AE, Rybarczyk AM, et al.  Long-term prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis.  Ann Pharmacother 2005:39;908-12.
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  6. Gines P, Rimola A, Planas R, et al.  Norfloxacin prevents spontaneous bacterial peritonitis recurrence in cirrhosis:  results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  Hepatology 1990;12:716-24.
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  8. Levy MJ, DiPalma JA.  New options for spontaneous bacterial prophylaxis: costly or cost effective? Gastroenterol 1996;91:1050-1.
  9. Mihas AA, Toussaint J, Sh Hsu H, et al.  Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: clinical and laboratory features, survival and prognostic indicators. Hepato-Gastroenterol 1992;39:520-2.
  10. Rimola L, Bory F, Teres J, et al.  Oral, nonabsorbable antibiotics prevent infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal hemorrhage.  Hepatology 1985;5:463-7.
  11. Rolachon A, Cordier L, Bacq Y, et al.  Ciprofloxacin and long-term prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: results of a prospective controlled trial.  Hepatol 1995;22:1171-4.
  12. Runyon BA.  Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis.  Hepatology 2004;39:1-16.
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  17. Singh N, Gayowski T, Yu VL, et al.  Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:595-8.
  18. Soriano G, Guarner C, Teixiso M, et al.  Selective intestinal decontamination prevents spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterol 1991;100:477-81.
  19. Soriano G, Guarner C, Tomas A, et al.  Norfloxacin prevents bacterial infection in cirrhotics with gastrointestinal hemorrhage.  Gastroenterol 1992;103:1267-72.
  20. Such J, Runyon BA.  Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:669-76.
  21. Toledo C, Salmeron JM, Rimola A, et al.  Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: predictive factors of infection resolution and survival in patients treated with cefotaxime. Hepatology 1993;17:251-7.
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   Peritonitis

  1. Ball CG, Hansen G, Harding GKM, et al.  Canadian practice guidelines for surgical intra-abdominal infections.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2010:21;11-37.
  2. Fitzmaurice GJ, McWilliams B, Hurreiz H, et al.  Antibiotics versus appendectomy in the management of acute appendicitis:  a review of the current evidence.  Can J Surg 2011.
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   2°/3° Peritonitis

  1. Bartlett JG.  Intra-abdominal sepsis. Med Clin N Amer 1995;79:599-617.
  2. Bennion RS, Thompson JE, Baron EJ, et al.  Gangrenous and perforated appendicitis with peritonitis: treatment and bacteriology. Clin Ther 1990;12:31-44.
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  10. Nichols RL, et al.  Wound and intraabdominal infections: microbiological considerations and approaches to treatment.  Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:266-72.
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  14. Solomkin JS, Dellinger EP, Christou NV, et al.  Results of a multicenter trial comparing imipenem/cilastatin to tobramycin/clindamycin for intra-abdominal infections.  Ann Surg 1990;212:581-91.
  15. Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Baron EJ, et al.  Guidelines for the selection of anti-infective agents for complicated intra-abdominal infections.  Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:997-1005.

   PD Peritonitis

  1. Anwar N, Merchant M, Were T, et al.  A prospective, randomized study of the comparative safety and efficacy of intraperitoneal imipenem versus vancomycin and netilmicin in the treatment of peritonitis on CAPD.  Perit Dial Int 1995;15:167–71.
  2. Baker RJ, Senior H, Clemenger M, et al.  Empirical aminoglycosides for peritonitis do not affect residual renal function.  Am J Kid Dis 2003;41:670-5.
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  8. Keane WF, Bailie GR, Boeschoten E. et al.  Adult peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis treatment recommendations:  2000 update.  www.ispd.org/2000_treatment_recommendations.html
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  10. Li PKT, Szeto CC, Piraino B, et al.  Peritoneal dialysis-related infections recommendations:  2010 update.  Perit Dial Int 2010:30;393-423.
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   Pancreatitis

  1. Baron TH, Morgan DE.  Acute necrotizing pancreatitis.  N Engl J Med 1999;340:1412-7.
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   Liver abscess

  1. Branum GD, Tyson GS, Branum MA, et al.  Hepatic abscess:  changes in etiology, diagnosis, and management.  Ann Surg 1990;212:655-62.
  2. Decre D, Verdet C, Emirian A, et al.  Emerging severe and fatal infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in two university hospitals in France.  J Clin Microbiol 2011:49;3012-4.
  3. Fang CT, Lai SY, Yi WC, et al.  Klebsiella pneumoniae genotype K1:  an emerging pathogen that causes septic ocular or central nervous system complications from pyogenic liver abscess.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:284-93.
  4. Lee SSJ, Chen YS, Tsai HC, et al.  Predictors of septic metastatic infection and mortality among patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess.  Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:642-50.

 

Genital

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  28. Gratrix J, Bergman J, Egan C, et al.  Retrospective review of pharyngeal gonorrhea treatment failures in Alberta, Canada.  Sexually Transmitted Dis 2013;40:877-9.
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  58. Schaeffer AJ.  Chronic prostatitis and the chronic pelvic pain syndrome.  N Engl J Med 2006;355:1690-8.
  59. Schmid GP.  Treatment of chancroid, 1997.  Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:S14-20.
  60. Sen P, Barton SE.  Genital herpes and its management.  BMJ 2007;334:1048-52.
  61. Sheffield JS, Hollier LM, Hill JB, et al.  Acyclovir prophylaxis to prevent herpes simplex virus recurrence at delivery:  a systematic review.  Obstet Gynecol 2003;102:1396-403.
  62. Sobel JD.  Vaginitis.  N Engl J Med 1997;337:1896-1903.
  63. Sobel JD.  Vulvovaginal candidosis.  Lancet 2007;369:1961-71.
  64. Sobel JD, Chaim W.  Treatment of Torulopsis glabrata vaginitis:   retrospective review of boric acid therapy.  Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:649-52.
  65. Spruance SL, Tyring SK, DeGregorio B, et al.  A large-scale, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of peroral valaciclovir for episodic treatment of recurrent Herpes genitalis.  Arch Intern Med 1996;156:1729-35.
  66. Stoner BP.  Current controversies in the management of adult syphilis.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;44(suppl 3):130-46.
  67. Sweet RL.  New approaches for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:479-82.
  68. Tan HH, Goh CL.  Parasitic skin infections in the elderly.  Drugs & Aging 2001:18;165-76.
  69. Trees DL, Morse SA.  Chancroid and Haemophilus ducreyi:  an update.  Clin Microbiol Rev 1995;8:357-75.
  70. Tsang RSW, Radons SM, Morshed M.  Laboratory diagnosis of syphilis:  a survey to examine the range of tests used in Canada.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2011;22:83-7.
  71. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.  Screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy to prevent preterm delivery:  U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.  Ann Intern Med 2008;148:214-9.
  72. Wagenlehner FME, Naber KG.  Current challenges in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and prostatitis.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2006;12(suppl 3):67-80.
  73. Wald A.  New therapies and prevention strategies for genital herpes.  Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:S4-13.
  74. Walker CK, Kahn JG, Washington AE, et al.  Pelvic inflammatory disease:  metaanalysis of antimicrobial regimen efficacy.  J Infect Dis 1993;168:969-78.
  75. Walker CK, Workowski KA, Washington AE, et al.  Anaerobes in pelvic inflammatory disease:  implications for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.  Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:S29-36.
  76. Warkentin DI, Epstein JB, Campbell LM, et al.  Valacyclovir versus acyclovir for HSV prophylaxis in neutropenic patients.  Ann Pharmacother 2002:36;1525-31.
  77. Wendel KA, Workowski KA.  Trichomoniasis:  challenges to appropriate management.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:S123-9.
  78. Wohrl S, Geusau A.  Clinical update:  syphilis in adults.  Lancet 2007;369:1912-4.

 

Urinary Tract

  1. Abbo LM, Hooton TM.  Antimicrobial stewardship and urinary tract infections.  Antibiotics 2014;3:174-92.
  2. Allais JM, Preheim LC, Cuevas TA, et al.  Randomized, double-blind comparison of ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for complicated urinary tract infections.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32:1327-30.
  3. Allen VM, Yudin MH.  Management of group B streptococcal bacteriuria in pregnancy.  J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2012;34:482-6.
  4. Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics.  UTI treatment at a turning point:  Improving antimicrobial prescribing for uncomplicated UTIs in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance.  Summary of proceedings June 10, 2003 roundtable.
  5. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases.  The use of systemic fluoroquinolones.  Pediatrics 2006;118:1287-92.
  6. American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection, Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management.  Urinary tract infection:  clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months.  Pediatrics 2011;128:595-610.
  7. Aydin A, Ahmed K, Zaman I, et al.  Recurrent urinary tract infections in women.  Int Urogynecol J 2015;26:795-804.
  8. Barry AL.  Nitrofurantoin susceptibility test criteria. J Antimicrob Chemother 1990;25:711-13.
  9. Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, et al.  Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection:  results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:23-30.
  10. Beerepoot MAJ, Geerlings SE, van Haarst EP, et al.  Nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections:  a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  J Urology 2013;190:1981-9.
  11. Boscia JA, Abrutyn E, Kaye D.  Asymptomatic bacteriuria in elderly persons: treat or do not treat?  Ann Intern Med 1987;106:764-6.
  12. Bouvet C, Lubbeke A, Bandi C, et al.  Is there any benefit in pre-operative urinary analysis before elective total joint replacement?  Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:390-4.
  13. Cai T, Mazzoli S, Mondaini N, et al.  The role of asymptomatic bacteriuria in young women with recurrent urinary tract infections:  to treat or not to treat?  Clin Infect Dis 2012;55:771-7.
  14. Car J.  Urinary tract infections in women:  diagnosis and management in primary care.  BMJ 2006;332:94-7.
  15. Committee on Quality Improvement, Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection.  Practice parameter:  the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children.  Pediatrics 1999;103:843-52.
  16. Conway PH, Cnaan A, Zaoutis T, et al.  Recurrent urinary tract infections in children - risk factors and association with prophylactic antimicrobials.  JAMA 2007;298:179-86.
  17. Cordero-Ampuero J, Gonzalez-Fernandez E, Martinez-Velez D, et al.  Are antibiotics necessary in hip arthroplasty with asymptomatic bacteriuria?  Seeding risk with/without treatment.  Clin Orthop Relat Res 2013;471:3822-9.
  18. Craig JC, Simpson JM, Williams GJ, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis and recurrent urinary tract infection in children.  N Engl J Med 2009;361:1748-59.
  19. Dai B, Liu Y, Jia J, et al.  Long-term antibiotics for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in children:  a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Arch Dis Child 2010;95:499-508.
  20. Dick PT, Feldman W.  Routine diagnostic imaging for childhood urinary tract infections: a systematic overview.  J Pediatr 1996;128:15-22.
  21. Delzell JE Jr, Lefevre ML.  Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.  Am Fam Physician 2000;61:713-21.
  22. Drekonja DM, Rector TS, Cutting A, et al.  Urinary tract infection in male veterans.  JAMA Intern Med 2013;173:62-8.
  23. Echols RM, Tosiello RL, Haverstock DC, et al.  Demographic, clinical, and treatment parameters influencing the outcome of acute cystitis.  Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:113-9.
  24. Eichenwald HF.  Some aspects of the diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in children and adolescents.  Pediatr Infect Dis 1986;5:760-5.
  25. Epp A, Larochelle A.  Recurrent urinary tract infection.  JOGC 2010;250:1082-90.
  26. Falagas ME, Vouloumanou EK, Togias AG, et al.  Fosfomycin versus other antibiotics for the treatment of cystitis:  a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65:1862-77.
  27. Falagas ME, Kastoris AC, Kapaskelis AM, et al.  Fosfomycin for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing, Enterobacteriaceae infections:  a systematic review.  Lancet Infect Dis 2010;10:43-50.
  28. Finnell SME, Carroll AE, Downs SM, et al.  Technical Report - Diagnosis and management of an initial UTI in febrile infants and young children.  Pediatrics 2011;128:e749-70.
  29. Gagyor I, Bleidorn J, Kochen MM, et al.  Ibuprofen versus fosfomycin for uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women:  randomised controlled trial.  BMJ 2015;351:h6544.
  30. Garau J.  Other antimicrobials of interest in the era of extended-spectrum β-lactamases:  fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin and tigecycline.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2008;14(suppl 1):198-202.
  31. Geerlings SE, Beerepoot MAJ, Prins JM.  Prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women.  Antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial strategies.  Infect Dis Clin N Am 2014;28:135-47.
  32. Gilstrap LC, Ramin SM.  Urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2001;28:581-91.
  33. Gleckman RA.  Treatment duration for urinary tract infections in adults.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1987;31:1-5.
  34. Gross PA, Patel B.  Reducing antibiotic overuse:  a call for a national performance measure for not treating asymptomatic bacteriuria.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:1335-7.
  35. Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al.  International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women:  a 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:e103-20.
  36. Gupta K, Hooton TM, Stamm WE.  Increasing antimicrobial resistance and the management of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infections.  Ann Intern Med 2001;135:41-50.
  37. Gupta K, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, et al.  Short-course nitrofurantoin for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women.  Arch Intern Med 2007;167:2207-12.
  38. Gupta K, Scholes D, Stamm WE.  Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing acute uncomplicated cystitis in women.  JAMA 1999;281:736-8.
  39. Harding G, et al.  The antibiotic puzzle: guidelines for the family physician. Can J Infect Dis 1997;8:1-16.
  40. Harding GKM, Ronald AR, Nicolle LE, et al.  Long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection in women.  Rev Infect Dis 1982;4:438-43.
  41. Harding GKM, Zhanel GG, Nicolle LE, et al.  Antimicrobial treatment in diabetic women with asymptomatic bacteriuria.  N Engl J Med 2002;347:1576-83.
  42. Hatton J, Hughes M, Raymond CH.  Management of bacterial urinary tract infections in adults. Ann Pharmacother 1994;28:1264-72.
  43. Holland NH, Kazee M, Duff D, et al.  Antimicrobial prophylaxis in children with urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux.  Rev Infect Dis 1982;4:467-74.
  44. Hooton TM.  Uncomplicated urinary tract infection.  N Engl J Med 2012;366:1028-37.
  45. Hooton TM, Besser R, Foxman B, et al.  Acute uncomplicated cystitis in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance:  a proposed approach to empirical therapy.  Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:75-80.
  46. Hooton TM, Roberts PL, Cox ME, et al.  Voided midstream urine culture and acute cystitis in premenopausal women.  N Engl J Med 2013;369:1883-91.
  47. Hom J.  Are oral antibiotics equivalent to intravenous antibiotics for the initial management of pyelonephritis in children?  Paediatr Child Health 2010;15:150-2.
  48. Hooton TM, Bradley SF, Cardenas DD, et al.  Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults:  2009 international clinical practice guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2010;50:625-63.
  49. Hooton TM, Scholes D, Gupta K, et al.  Amoxicillin-clavulanate vs ciprofloxacin for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in women. JAMA 2005;293:949-55.
  50. Hooton TM, Scholes D, Stapleton AE, et al.  A prospective study of asymptomatic bacteriuria in sexually active young women.  N Engl J Med 2000;343:992-7.
  51. Hooton TM, Stamm WE.  Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infect Dis Clin N Amer 1997;11:551-81.
  52. Hooton TM, Stamm WE.  Management of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults. Med Clin N Amer 1991;75:339-57.
  53. Hooton TM, Winter C, Tiu F, et al.  Randomized comparative trial and cost analysis of 3-day antimicrobial regimens for treatment of acute cystitis in women.  JAMA 1995;273:41-5.
  54. Horcajada JP, Shaw E, Padilla B, et al.  Healthcare-associated, community-acquired and hospital-acquired bacteraemic urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients:  a prospective multicentre cohort study in the era of antimicrobial resistance.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2013;19:962-8.
  55. Iravani A.  Advances in the understanding and treatment of urinary tract infections in young women.  Urology 1991;37:503-11.
  56. Jacobsen SM, Stickler DJ, Mobley HLT, et al.  Complicated catheter-associated urinary tract infections due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.  Clin Microbiol Rev 2008;21:26-59.
  57. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC.  Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections (Review).  Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 10.  Art. No.:CD001321.
  58. Johnson JR, Russo TA.  Acute pyelonephritis in adults.  N Engl J Med 2018;378:48-59.
  59. Johnson JR, Stamm WE.  Urinary tract infections in women: diagnosis and treatment. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:906-17.
  60. Keren R, Carpenter MA, Hoberman A, et al.  Rationale and design issues of the randomized intervention for children with vesicoureteral reflux (RIVUR) study.  Pediatrics 2008;122:S240-50.
  61. Khan AJ, Kumar K, Evans HE.  Single-dose gentamicin therapy of recurrent urinary tract infection in patients with normal urinary tracts.  J Pediatr 1987;110:131-5.
  62. Kunin CM.  Urinary tract infections in females. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:1-12.
  63. Le TP, Miller LG.  Empirical therapy for uncomplicated urinary tract infections in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance:  a decision and cost analysis.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:615-21.
  64. Leisure MK, Dudley SM, Donowitz LG.  Does a clean-catch urine sample reduce bacterial contamination? N Engl J Med 1993;328:289-90.
  65. Lin K, Fajardo K.  Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults:  evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement.  Ann Intern Med 2008;149:W20-4.
  66. Lipsky BA.  Urinary tract infections in men: epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Ann Intern Med 1989;110:138-50.
  67. Lo E, Nicolle LE, Coffin SE, et al.  Strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in acute care hospitals:  2014 update.  Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35:464-79.
  68. Lohr JA, Donowitz LG, Sadler JE.  Hospital-acquired urinary tract infection.  Pediatrics 1989;83:193-9.
  69. Luchsinger IS.  Urinary tract infections: management update. Can J CME 1994;Apr:87-94.
  70. Maki DG.  Review:  antibiotic prophylaxis on removal of urinary catheters reduces symptomatic urinary tract infections.  ACP 2013;159:JC9.
  71. Marschall J, Carpenter CR, Fowler S, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for urinary tract infections after removal of urinary catheter:  meta-analysis.  BMJ 2013;346:f3147.
  72. Masson P, Matheson S, Webster AC, et al.  Meta-analyses in prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections.  Infect Dis Clin N Am 2009:23:355-85.
  73. Mehnert-Kay SA.  Diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections.  Am Fam Physician 2005;72:451-6, 458.
  74. Micali S, Isgro G, Bianchi G, et al.  Cranberry and recurrent cystitis:  more than marketing?  Crit Rev Food Science Nutrition 2014;54:1063-75.
  75. Millar LK, Cox SM.  Urinary tract infections complicating pregnancy.  Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997:11:13-26.
  76. Miller O, Hemphill RR.  Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.  Emerg Med Clin North Am 2001:19:655-74.
  77. Mody L, Juthani-Mehta M.  Urinary tract infections in older women. A clinical review.  JAMA 2014;311:844-54.
  78. Montini G, Tullus K, Hewitt I.  Febrile urinary tract infections in children.  N Engl J Med 2011;365:239-50.
  79. Mori R, Fitzgerald A, Williams C, et al.  Antibiotic prophylaxis for children at risk of developing urinary tract infection:  a systematic review.  Acta Paediatrica 2009;98:1781-6.
  80. Mori R, Lakhanpaul M, Verrier-Jones K.  Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in children:  summary of NICE guidance.  BMJ 2007;335:395-7.
  81. Neu HC.  Trimethoprim alone for treatment of urinary tract infection.  Rev Infect Dis 1982;4:366-71.
  82. Nicolle LE.  A practical guide to antimicrobial management of complicated urinary tract infection.  Drugs & Aging 2001;18:243-54.
  83. Nicolle LE.  Asymptomatic bacteriuria – Important or not?  N Engl J Med 2000;343:1037-9.
  84. Nicolle LE.  Asymptomatic bacteriuria.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2014;27:90-6.
  85. Nicolle LE.  Complicated urinary tract infection in adults.  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2005;16:349-60.
  86. Nicolle LE.  Epidemiology of urinary tract infections.  Clin Microbiol Newsletter 2002;24:135-40.
  87. Nicolle LE.  Urinary tract infection in long term-care facility residents.  Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:757-61.
  88. Nicolle LE.  Urinary infection in the elderly.  Mod Med 1990;45:556-63.
  89. Nicolle LE, Bradley S, Colgan R, et al.  Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults.  Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:643-54.
  90. Nigrin J.  Laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infections.  Capital Health/DKML Laboratory Bulletin 1995;1:1-6.
  91. Norrby SR.  Short-term treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infecions in women.  Rev Infect Dis 1990;12:458-67.
  92. Ooi ST, Frazee LA, Gardner WG.  Management of asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with diabetes mellitus.  Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:490-3.
  93. Oreskovic NM, Sembrano EU.  Repeat urine cultures in children who are admitted with urinary tract infections.  Pediatrics 2007;119:e325-9.
  94. Oteo J, Perez-Vazquez M, Campos J.  Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli:  changing epidemiology and clinical impact.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2010;23:320-6.
  95. Pallett A, Hand K.  Complicated urinary tract infections:  practical solutions for the treatment of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65(suppl 3):iii25-33.
  96. Pappas PG.  Laboratory in the diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections.  Med Clin North Am 1991;75:313-25.
  97. Platt R.  Quantitative definition of bacteriuria.  Am J Med 1983;44-51.
  98. Preiksaitis J.  Capital Health Protocol: UTI kidney transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 1992;15.
  99.  Raz R, Stamm WE.  A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. N Engl J Med 1993;329:753-6.
  100. Robinson JL, Finlay JC, Lang ME, et al.  Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections.  Paediatr Child Health 2015;20:45-7.
  101. Robinson JL, Finlay JC, Lang ME, et al.  Urinary tract infection in infants and children:  Diagnosis and management.  Paediatr Child Health 2014;19:315-9.
  102. Rodriguez-Bano J, Navarro MD.  Extended-spectrum β-lactamases in ambulatory care:  a clinical perspective.  Clin Microbial Infect 2008;14(suppl 1):104-10.
  103. Rogers BA, Sidjabat HE, Paterson DL.  Escherichia coli 025b-ST131:  a pandemic, multiresistant, community-associated strain.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2011;66:1-14.
  104. Ronald AR, Conway B.  An approach to urinary tract infections in ambulatory women.  Curr Clin Topics Infect Dis 1988;76-125.
  105. Ronald AR.  Current concepts in the management of urinary tract infections in adults.  Med Clin N Amer 1984;68:335-49.
  106. Rowe TA, Juthani-Mehta M.  Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in older adults.  Infect Dis Clin North Am 2014;28:75-89.
  107. Saadeh SA, Mattoo TK.  Managing urinary tract infections.  Pediatr Nephrol 2011;26:1967-76.
  108. Shapiro ED.  Infections of the urinary tract.  Pediatr Inf Dis J 1992;11:165-8.
  109. Shuman EK, Chenoweth CE.  Recognition and prevention of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in the intensive care unit.  Crit Care Med 2010;38:S373-9.
  110. Silver SA, Baillie L, Simor AE.  Positive urine cultures:  a major cause of inappropriate antimicrobial use in hospitals?  Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2009;20:107-11.
  111. Smellie JM, Gruneberg RN, Bantock HM, et al.  Prophylactic co-trimoxazole and trimethoprim in the management of urinary tract infection in children.  Pediatr Nephrol 1988;2:12-17.
  112. Smellie JM, Gruneberg RN, Leakey A, et al.  Long-term low-dose co-trimoxazole in prophylaxis of childhood urinary tract infection:  clinical aspects.  Brit Med J 1976;2:203-6.
  113. Smellie JM, Gruneberg RN, Normand ICS, et al.  Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim alone in the prophylaxis of childhood urinary tract infection.  Rev Infect Dis 1982;4:461-6.
  114. Sousa R, Munoz-Mahamud E, Quayle J, et al.  Is asymptomatic bacteriuria a risk factor for prosthetic joint infection?  Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:41-7.
  115. Spencer JR, Schaeffer AJ.  Pediatric urinary tract infections. Urol Clin North Am 1986;13:661-72.
  116. Stamm WE, Counts GW, Running KR, et al.  Diagnosis of coliform infection in acutely dysuric women.  N Engl J Med 1982;307:463-8.
  117. Stamm WE, Hooton TM.  Management of urinary tract infections in adults. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1328-34.
  118. Swerkesson S, Jodal U, Ahren C, et al.  Urinary tract infection in infants: the significance of low bacterial count.  Pediatr Nephrol 2016;31:239-45.
  119. Talan DA, Stamm WE, Hooton TM, et al.  Comparison of ciprofloxacin (7 days) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14 days) for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis in women: a randomized trial.  JAMA 2000;283:1583-90.
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  121. Trautner BW.  Asymptomatic bacteriuria:  when the treatment is worse than the disease.  Nat Rev Urol 2012;9:85-93.
  122. Trautner BW.  Management of catheter-associated urinary tract infection.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2010;23:76-82.
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Central Nervous System

 

   Meningitis

  1. Anon.  Drugs for bacterial infections.  Treatment Guidelines Med Lett 2010;8: 43-52.
  2. Brackbill ML, Brophy GM.  Adjunctive rifampin therapy for central nervous system staphylococcal infections.  Ann Pharmacother 2001;35:765-9.
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  4. Brouwer MC, McIntyre P, de Gans, J, et al.  Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010, Issue 9, Art. No.:  CD004405.
  5. Brouwer MC, Tunkel AR, van de Beek D.  Epidemiology, diagnosis, and antimicrobial treatment of acute bacterial meningitis.  Clin Microbiol Rev 2010;23:467-92.
  6. Carey RB.  Rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis by antigen detection.  Infect Dis Newslett.
  7. Davis LE, Guerre J, Gerstein WH.  Recurrent Herpes simplex virus type 2 meningitis in elderly persons.  Arch Neurol 2010; 67:759-60.
  8. De Gans J, van de Beek D.  Dexamethasone in adults with bacterial meningitis.  N Engl J Med 2002;347:1549-56.
  9. Durand ML, Calderwood SB, Weber DJ, et al.  Acute bacterial meningitis in adults: a review of 493 episodes. N Engl J Med 1993;328:21-8.
  10. Dworzack DL, Sanders CC, Horowitz EA, et al.  Evaluation of single-dose ciprofloxacin in the eradication of Neisseria meningitidis from nasopharyngeal carriers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32:1740-1.
  11. Feigin RD, McCracken GH, Klein JO.  Diagnosis and management of meningitis.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992;11:785-814.
  12. Fitch MT, van de Beek D.  Emergency diagnosis and treatment of adult meningitis.  Lancet Infect Dis 2007;7:191-200.
  13. Forward KR.  Prospective evaluation of bacterial antigen detection in cerebral spinal fluid in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in a predominantly adult hospital.  Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1988;11:61-3.
  14. Fox JLR.  In children with bacterial meningitis, does the addition of dexamethasone to an antibiotic treatment regimen result in a better clinical outcome than the antibiotic regimen alone?  Part A:  Evidence-based answer and summary.  Paediatr Child Health 2006;11:33-4.
  15. Gaunt PN, Lambert BE.  Single dose ciprofloxacin for the eradication of pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1988;21:489-96.
  16. Guardado AR, Blanco A, Asensi V, et al.  Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter meningitis in neurosurgical patients with intraventricular catheters:  assessment of different treatments.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;61:908-13.
  17. Hart CA, Cuevas LE, Marzouk O, et al.  Management of bacterial meningitis. J Antimicrob Chemother 1993;32:49-59.
  18. Kallio-Laine K, Seppanen M, Kautiainen H, et al.  Recurrent lymphocytic meningitis positive for Herpes simplex virus type 2.  Emerg Iinfect Dis 2009;15:1119-22.
  19. Karageorgopoulos DE, Valkimadi PE, Kapaskelis A, et al.  Short versus long duration of antibiotic therapy for bacterial meningitis:  a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in children.  Arch Dis Child 2009;94:607-14.
  20. Kellner JD.  Response to " Benefits of glucocorticosteroids in the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children:  End of the controversy?"  Paediatr Child Health 2006;11:31-2.
  21. Khawcharoenporn T, Apisarnthanarak A, Mundy LM.  Intrathecal colistin for drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii central nervous system infection:  a case series and systematic review.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2010;16:888-94.
  22. Kim BN, Peleg AY, Lodise TP, et al.  Management of meningitis due to antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter species.  Lancet Infect Dis 2009;9:245-55.
  23. Kim KS.  Acute bacterial meningitis in infants and children.  Lancet Infect Dis 2010;10:32-42.
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  44. Stephens DS, Greenwood B, Brandtzaeg P.  Epidemic meningitis, meningococcaemia, and Neisseria meningitidis.  Lancet 2007;369:2196-210.
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   Brain Abscess

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  2. Boom WH, Tuazon CU.  Successful treatment of multiple brain abscesses with antibiotics alone. Rev Infect Dis 1985;7:189-99.
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  9. Gilbert DN, Moellering RC, Eliopoulos GM, eds.  The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2012. Sperryville, VA:  Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc. 2012.
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  11. Warner JF, Perkins RL, Cordero L.  Metronidazole therapy of anaerobic bacteremia, meningitis and brain abscess.  Arch Intern Med 1979;139:167-9.

   Epidural Abscess

  1. Auletta JJ, John CC.  Spinal epidural abscesses in children:  a 15-year experience and review of the literature.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:9-16.
  2. Borum SE, McLeskey CH, Williamson JB, et al.  Epidural abscess after obstetric epidural analgesia.  Anesthesiology 1995;82:1523-6.
  3. Darouiche, RO.  Spinal epidural abscess.  N Engl J Med 2006;355:2012-20.
  4. Ericsson M, Algers G, Schliamser SE.  Spinal epidural abscesses in adults: review and report of iatrogenic cases.  Scand J Infect Dis 1990;22:249-57.
  5. Schweich PJ, Hurt TL.  Spinal epidural abscess in children:  two illustrative cases.  Pediatr Emerg Care 1992;8:84-7.

   Subdural Empyema

  1. Dill SR, Cobb CG, McDonals CK.  Subdural empyema: analysis of 32 cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:372-86.

   Encephalitis

  1. Dannemann B, McCutchan JA, Israelski D, et al.  Treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS:  a randomized trial comparing pyrimethamine plus clindamycin to pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine.  Ann Intern Med 1992;116:33-43.
  2. Johnson RT.  Acute encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 1996;23:219-26.
  3. Kimberlin DW, Lin C-Y, Jacobs RF, et al.  Natural history of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in the acyclovir era.  Pediatrics 2001;108:223-9.
  4. Kimberlin DW, Lin C-Y, Jacobs RF, et al.  Safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.  Pediatrics 2001;108:230-8.
  5. Kolski H, Ford-Jones EL, Richardson S, et al.  Etiology of acute childhood encephalitis at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, 1994-95.  Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:398-409.
  6. Tunkel AR, Glaser CA, Bloch KC, et al.  The management of encephalitis:  clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:303-27.
  7. Whitley RJ.  Viral encephalitis.  N Engl J Med 1990;323:242-50.

Vascular

 

   Bacteremia

   S. aureus

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  4. Gould IM.  Treatment of bacteraemia:  meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA).  Internat J Antimcrob Agents 2013;425:S17-21.
  5. Havey TC, Fowler RA, Daneman N.  Duration of antibiotic therapy for bacteremia:  a systematic review and meta-analysis.  Crit Care 2011;15:R267.
  6. Holland TL, Arnold C, Fowler VG.  Clinical management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia – a review.  JAMA 2014;312:1330-41.
  7. Kalil AC, Van Schooneveld TC, Fey PD, et al.  Association between vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration and mortality among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections – a systematic review and meta-analysis.  JAMA 2014;312:1552-64.
  8. McConeghy KW, Bleasdale SC, Rodvold KA.  The empirical combination of vancomycin and a β-lactam for staphylococcal bacteremia.  Clin Infect Dis 2013;57:1760-5.
  9. McDanel JS, Roghmann MC, Perencevich EN, et al.  Comparative effectiveness of cefazolin versus nafcillin or oxacillin for treatment of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections complicated by bacteremia:  a nationwide cohort study.  Clin Infect Dis 2017;65:100-6.
  10. Paul M, Kariv G, Goldberg E, et al.  Importance of appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65:2658-65.
  11. Paul M, Zemer-Wassercug N, Talker O, et al.  Are all beta-lactams similarly effective in the treatment of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia?  Clin Microbial Infect 2011;17:1581-6.
  12. Thwaites GE, Edgeworth JD, Gkrania-Klotsas E, et al.  Clinical management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.  Lancet Infect Dis 2011;11:208-22.
  13. Tong SYC, Davis JS, Eichenberger E, et al.  Staphylococcus aureus infections:  epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.  Clin Microb Rev 2015;28:603-60.
  14. Van Hal SJ, Jensen SO, Vaska VL, et al.  Predictors of mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.  Clin Microb Rev 2012;25:362-86.    
  15. Walraven CJ, North MS, Marr-Lyon L, et al.  Site of infection rather than vancomycin MIC predicts vancomycin treatment failure in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2011;66:2386-92.

   Salmonella

  1. Benenson S, Raveh D, Schlesinger Y, et al.  The risk of vascular infection in adult patients with nontyphi Salmonella bacteremia.  Am J Med 2001;110:60-3.
  2. Crump JA, Sjolund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, et al.  Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections.  Clin Microbiol Rev 2015;28:901-20.

   Endocarditis

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  42. Knoll B, Tleyjeh IM, Steckelberg JM, et al.  Infective endocarditis due to penicillin-resistant viridans group streptococci.  Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:1585-92.
  43. Koruk ST, Erdem H, Koruk I, et al.  Management of Brucella endocarditis:  results of the Gulhane study.  Int J Antimicrob Agents 2012;40:145-50.
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  45. Lester SJ, Wilansky S.  Endocarditis and associated complications.  Crit Care Med 2007;35:S384-91.
  46. Levine DP.  Clinical experience with daptomycin:  bacteraemia and endocarditis.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;62(suppl 3):iii35-9.
  47. Meyer DJ, Gerding DN.  Favorable prognosis of patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by gram-negative bacilli of the HACEK group.  Am J Med 1988;85:104-7.
  48. Million M, Thuny F, Richet H, et al.  Long-term outcome of Q fever endocarditis:  a 26-year personal survey.  Lancet Infect Dis 2010;10:527-35.
  49. Morris AJ, Drinkovic D, Pottumarthy S, et al.  Bacteriological outcome after valve surgery for active infective endocarditis:  implications for duration of treatment after surgery.  Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:187-94.
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  52. Parker RH, Fossieck BE.  Intravenous followed by oral antimicrobial therapy for Staphylococcal endocarditis.  Ann Intern Med 1980;93:832-4.
  53. Patterson TF, Thompson GR, Denning DW, et al.  Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of aspergillosis:  2016 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2016.
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  61. Ribera E, Gomez-Jimenez J, Cortes E, et al.  Effectiveness of cloxacillin with and without gentamicin in short-term therapy for right-sided Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: a randomized controlled trial.  Ann Intern Med 1996;125:969-74.
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  63. Sandre RM, Shafran SD.  Infective endocarditis: review of 135 cases over 9 years. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:276-86.
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  66. Tacke D, Koehler P, Cornely OA.  Fungal endocarditis.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2013;26:501-7.
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   Pericarditis

  1. Imazio M, Spodick DH, Brucato A, et al.  Controversial issues in the management of pericardial diseases.  Circulation 2010;121:916-28.
  2. Parikh SV, Memon N, Echols M, et al.  Purulent pericarditis:  report of 2 cases and review of the literature.  Medicine 2009;88:52-65.

 

Sepsis

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  2. Anon.  Systemic antifungal drugs.  Med Lett Drugs Ther 1997;39:86-8.
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  18. Ehni WF, Reller LB.  Short-course therapy for catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.  Arch Intern Med 1989;149:533-6.
  19. Elting LS, Bodey GP, Keefe BH.  Septicemia and shock syndrome due to viridans Streptococci:  a case-control study of predisposing factors.  Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:1201-7.
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  22. Huppler AR, Eickhoff JC, Wald ER.  Performance of low-risk criteria in the evaluation of young infants with fever:  review of the literature.  Pediatrics 2010;125:228-33.
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  25. Kumar A.  Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in sepsis and septic shock.  Crit Care Clin 2009;25:733-51.
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  27. Kumar A, Zarychanski R, Light B, et al.  Early combination antibiotic therapy yields improved survival compared with monotherapy in septic shock:  a propensity-matched analysis.  Crit Care Med 2010;38:1773-85.
  28. Laupland KB.  Polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin for the prophylaxis and treatment of infection in critically ill adults.  Can J Infect Dis 2002:13;100-6.
  29. Long SS.  Antibiotic therapy in febrile children:  “best-laid schemes”.  J Pediatr 1994;124:585-8.
  30. Low DE, McGeer A.  Streptococcal toxic shock and necrotizing fasciitis:  new approaches to therapy.  Infect Dis Microbiol Rounds 2002:vol 2, issue 1.
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  33. Mermel LA, Farr BM, Sheretz RJ, et al.  Guidelines for the management of intravascular catheter-related infections.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:1249-72.
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  36. Piano S, Bartoletti M, Tonon M, et al.  Assessment of Sepsis-3 criteria and quick SOFA in patients with cirrhosis and bacterial infections.  Gut 2017;31 August. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314324.
  37. Polin R, and the Committee on Fetus and Newborn.  Management of neonates with suspected or proven early-onset bacterial sepsis.  Pediatrics 2012;129:1006-16.
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  40. Raad II, Bodey GP.  Infectious complications of indwelling vascular catheters.  Clin Infect Dis 1992;15:197-210.
  41. Raad II, Hanna HA.  Intravascular catheter-related infections.  Arch Intern Med 2002;162:871-8.
  42. Raith EP, Udy AA, Bailey M, et al.  Prognostic accuracy of the SOFA score, SIRS criteria, and qSOFA score for in-hospital mortality among adults with suspected infection admitted to the intensive care unit.  JAMA 2017;317:290-300.         
  43. Reuben AG, Musher DM, Hamill RJ.  Polymicrobial bacteremia:  clinical and microbiologic patterns.  Rev Infect Dis 1989;11:161-83.
  44. Rex JH, Bennett JE, Sugar AM, et al.  A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1325-30.
  45. Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, et al.  Surviving Sepsis Campaign:  international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock:  2016.  Crit Care Med 2017;45:486-52.
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  47. Sawyer RG, Claridge JA, Nathens AB, et al.  Trial of short-course antimicrobial therapy for intraabdominal infection.  N Engl J Med 2015;372:1996-2005.      
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  49. Shankar-Hari M, Phillips GS, Levy ML, et al. Developing a new definition and assessing new clinical criteria for septic shock.  JAMA 2016;315:775-87.        
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  51. Tamma PD, Cosgrove SE, Maragakis LL.  Combination therapy for treatment of infections with Gram-negative bacteria.  Clini Microbiol Rev 2012;25:450-70.
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   Catheter-related Bloodstream Infections

  1. Chittick P, Sherertz RJ.  Recognition and prevention of nosocomial vascular device and related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit.  Crit Care Med 2010;38(suppl):S363-72.
  2. Eggimann P.  Diagnosis of intravascular catheter infection.  Curr Opin Infect Dis 2007;20:353-9.
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  4. Mermel LA, Allon M, Bouza E, et al.  Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection:  2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2009;49:1-45.
  5. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, et al.  Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:e162-93.
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Febrile Neutropenia

  1. Bliziotis IA, Michalopoulos A, Kasiakou SK, et al.  Ciprofloxacin vs an aminoglycoside in combination with a ß-lactam for the treatment of febrile neutropenia:  a meta-analysis of randomized trials.  Mayo Clin Proc 2005;80:1146-56.
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  5. Bow EJ.  Management of the febrile neutropenic cancer patient:  lessons from 40 years of study.  Clin Microbiol Infect 2005;11(suppl 5):24-9.
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  7. Cooper MR, Durand CR, Beaulac MT, et al.  Single-agent, broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones for the outpatient treatment of low-risk febrile neutropenia.  Ann Pharmacother 2011;45:1094-102.
  8. Del Favero A, Menichetti F, Martino P, et al.  A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing piperacillin-tazobactam with and without amikacin as empiric therapy for febrile neutropenia.  Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:1295-301.
  9. EORTC International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group.  Efficacy and toxicity of single daily doses of amikacin and ceftriaxone versus multiple daily doses of amikacin and ceftazidime for infection in patients with cancer and granulocytopenia. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:584-93.
  10. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group and the National Cancer Institute of Canada - Clinical Trials Group. Vancomycin added to empirical combination antibiotic therapy for fever in granulocytopenic cancer patients. J Infect Dis 1991;163:951-8.
  11. Freifeld AG, Bow EJ, Sepkowitz KA, et al.  Clinical practice guideline for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer:  2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  Clin Infect Dis 2011;52:e56-93.
  12. Freifeld AG, Walsh T, Marshall D, et al.  Monotherapy for fever and neutropenia in cancer patients: a randomized comparison of ceftazidime versus imipenem. J Clin Oncology 1995;13:165-76.
  13. Giamarellou H, Bassaris HP, Petrikkos G, et al.  Monotherapy with intravenous followed by oral high-dose ciprofloxacin versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as initial empiric therapy for granulocytopenic patients with fever.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:3264-71.
  14. Giamarellou H.  Empiric therapy for infections in the febrile, neutropenic, compromised host. Med Clin North Am 1995;79:559-80.
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  16. Glasmacher A, vonLilienfeld-Toal M, Schultz S, et al.  An evidence-based evaluation of important aspects of empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenic patients.  Clin Micro Infection 2005;11(suppl 5):17-23.
  17. Hathorn JW, Rubin M, Pizzo PA.  Empirical antibiotic therapy in the febrile neutropenic cancer patient: clinical efficacy and impact of monotherapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1987;31:971-7.
  18. Hess U, Bohme C, Rey K, et al.  Monotherapy with piperacillin/tazobactam versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as an empiric therapy for fever in neutropenic cancer patients.  Support Care Cancer 1998;6:402-9.
  19. Hughes WT, Armstron D, Bodey GP, et al.  Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with unexplained fever. J Infect Dis 1990;161:381-96.
  20. Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP, et al.  1997 guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with unexplained fever. Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:551-73.
  21. Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP, et al.  2002 guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer.  Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:730-51.
  22. Kern WV.  Risk assessment and treatment of low-risk patients with febrile neutropenia.  Clin Infect Dis 2006;42:533-40.
  23. Kinsey SE, Machin SJ, Goldstone AH.  Ceftazidime monotherapy is as effective as ceftazidime combined with gentamicin in the treatment of febrile neutropenic patients. J Hosp Infect 1990;15:49-53.
  24. Liles WC, Dale DC.  Current approach to the management of neutropenia. J Intensive Care Med 1995;10:283-93.
  25. Link H, Maschmeyer G, Meyer P, et al.  Interventional antimicrobial therapy in febrile neutropenic patients. Ann Hematol 1994;69:231-43.
  26. Lortholary O, Lefort A, Tod M, et al.  Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of antibacterial drugs in the management of febrile neutropenia.  Lancet Infect Dis 2008;8:612-20.
  27. Martino P, et al.  Single daily dose ceftriaxone plus amikacin treatment of febrile episodes in neutropenic patients attending day hospital for hematologic malignancies. Oncology 1992;49:49-52.
  28. Mavros MN, Polyzos KA, Rafailidis PI, et al.  Once versus multiple daily dosing of aminoglycosides for patients with febrile neutropenia:  a systematic review and meta-analysis.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2011;66:251-9.
  29. Palazzi DL.  The use of antimicrobial agents in children with fever during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.  Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011;30:887-90.
  30. Paul M, Borok S, Fraser A, et al.  Empirical antibiotics against Gram-positive infections for febrile neutropenia:  systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2005;55:436-44.
  31. Paul M, Soares-Weiser K, Leibovici L.  ß lactam monotherapy versus ß lactam-aminoglycoside combination therapy for fever with neutropenia:  systematic review and meta-analysis.  BMJ 2003;326:1111-9.
  32. Paul M, Yahav D, Fraser A, et al.  Empirical antibiotic monotherapy for febrile neutropenia:  systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;57:176-89.
  33. Peacock Jr. JE, Herrington DA, Wade JC, et al.  Ciprofloxacin plus piperacillin compared with tobramycin plus piperacillin as empirical therapy in febrile neutropenic patients.  A randomized, double-blind trial.  Ann Intern Med 2002;137:77-86.
  34. Pizzo PA.  Current issues in the antibiotic primary management of the febrile neutropenic cancer patient: a perspective from the National Cancer Institute. J Hosp Infect 1990;15:41-8.
  35. Pizzo PA.  Management of fever in patients with cancer and treatment-induced neutropenia. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1323-32.
  36. Ramphal R, Bolger M, Oblon DJ, et al.  Vancomycin is not an essential component of the initial empiric treatment regimen for febrile neutropenic patients receiving ceftazidime: a randomized prospective study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1992;36:1062-7.
  37. Rolston KVI.  Challenges in the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in patients with cancer and neutropenia.  Clin Infect Dis 2005;40(suppl 4):S246-52.
  38. Rotstein C, Bow EJ, et al.  Adult patient care plan:  management of the febrile neutropenic cancer patient on an outpatient basis.  Can J Infect Dis 2000;11(suppl D):27D-33D.
  39. Rozdzinski E, Kern WV, Reichle A, et al.  Once-daily versus thrice-daily dosing of netilmicin in combination with b-lactam antibiotics as empirical therapy for febrile neutropenic patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 1993;31:585-98.
  40. Sanders JW, Powe NR, Moore RD.  Ceftazidime monotherapy for empiric treatment of febrile neutropenic patients: a metaanalysis. J Infect Dis 1991;164:907-16.
  41. Zinner SH.  Changing epidemiology of infections in patients with neutropenia and cancer:  emphasis on gram-positive and resistant bacteria.  Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:490-4.